14056 nipAta, person ←

chunk 12: 21003 compounds

→ 23001 use of cases

21003 Up to kaDAra, compound. prAkkaDArAtsamAsaH
21005 unchanging compounds are made by the next rules. avyayIbhAvaH
21022 tatpuruSa start here. tatpuruSaH
21044 When used as a tag . saJjJAyAm
21049 Previous time, eka-, sarva-, jarat, purANa, nava, kevala of what they describe. pUrvakAlaikasarvajaratpurANanavakevalAssamAnAdhikaraNena
21050 Compass-points and numerals may compound to make a tag. diksaGkhyesaJjJAyAm
21051 with the meaning of a taddhita, when former, and when meaning a group. taddhitArthottarapadasamAhAreca
21052 And if the former is a numeral they are dvigu too. saGkhyApUrvodviguH
22006 naJ naJ
22008 sixth SaSThI
22010 doesn't when meaning specification. nanirdhAraNe
22016 that means a doer. kartarica
22023 The rest are longhorns. zeSobahuvrIhiH
22024 two or more to mean something else. anekamanyapadArthe
22028 "With him", if the action is shared. tenasahetitulyayoge
22029 dvandva compounds mean "and". cArthedvandvaH
22034 The one with the less vowels . alpActaram
22038 Optionally swap karmadhAraya compounds of kaDAra- etc. kaDArAHkarmadhAraye

(prAkkaDArA) (@com)

prAk kaDArAt samAsaH ONPANINI 21003
Up to kaDAra, compound.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 156

headline. The next rules, down to 22038 kaDArAHka, explain what compounds are allowed.

Roughly explained, a compound noun is a noun that made by joining two nouns.

Examples in English.

The noun bluegrass means a kind of music. It is made from joining two words, blue and grass, so it's a compound.

The noun coralsnake means a sort of snake. This has a bit more logic than the bluegrass thing, that has hardly anything to do with grass and can't be painted blue.

Then the noun white-eye means a sort of bird. This has more logic than the above two, because these guys have a white circle around each eye.

Examples in Sanskrit.

kRSNazakuni means a sort of bird. Not the blackbird (Turdus merula and other species), but the crow, also called kAka (Corvus culminatus and other species).

sarvabhUtAni means all creatures. You may also say sarvANibhUtAni, which is not a compound, to mean all creatures.

What do grammatical rules have to do with compounds? When I was in school I was taught English grammar, but no rules had anything to with do compounds. The only thing I learned is that, if I want to write coralsnake, I need to check the dictionary, which will tell me if the right spelling is "coralsnake", "coral snake", or "coral-snake".

The pANini rules tell you which pairs of words you can turn into a compound and which ones you can't. For instance, because of a certain rule, you may turn sarve kAkAH "all crows" into sarvakAkAH "all crows". Without looking at the dictionary. But this rule (nor any other rule) will not allow turning sundarAH kAkAH "beautiful crows" into a compound meaning "beautiful crows". If you know well the rules, you don't need a dictionary, and you may build new compounds on your own. If you had good enough dictionary, you woudn't need to know the rules, but you'd be dubious about making new ones.

How do you know that sarvANibhUtAni is NOT a compound? Because it is spelled with a space in the middle, maybe?

No. You can't hear any spaces when people talk. And written spaces are highly unreliable. I know that this one is not a compound because if it were, rule supodhA would have worked, as it did in sarvabhUtAni.

1689 letters. -- 21.bse 40 -- popularity 41

(avyayIbhA) (/avy)

avyayIbhAvaH ONPANINI 21005
unchanging compounds are made by the next rules.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 157

headline. The words built by following rules, down to 21020, are called avyayIbhAva "compounds turned into unchanging".

They are considered unchanging and not nouns, even though they have an am at the end, because they never take any other sup.

They are built by compounding a prAdi before a noun, making the compound neuter, and adding am, wich will be affected by svamorna or atom.

Examples --

prati "against, traversely" + loman- "hair" + su svamorna pratiloman nalopaHprA pratiloma "against the grain"

anuloma "along the grain"

anu + malinI + tIra + am atom anumAlinItIram "along the bank of the mAlinI"

They are used as adverbs of manner, as in --

zRNu vaptar mama giramM mA kSuraH pratiloma mAm "barber, pay heed to my word -- don't shave me against the grain"

KAZIKA avyayIbhAvaH ity adhikAro veditavyaH. yAn ita Urdhvam anukramiSyAmaH, avyayIbhAva-saMjJA aste veditavyAH. vakSyati yathA 'sAdRzye ( 21007 ). yathA-vRddhaM brAhmaNAn Amantrayasva. anvartha-saMjJA ceyaM mahatI pUrva-pad%Artha-prAdhAnyam avyayIbhAvasya darzayati. avyayIbhAva-pradezAH avyayIbhAvaz ca ( 24018 ) ity evam AdayaH.

567 letters. -- 21.bse 182 -- popularity 2

1327 Types of [@compound]s.

(tatpuruSaH) (/tat)

tatpuruSaH ONPANINI 21022
tatpuruSa start here.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 158

headline. Compounds described from this point on, down to 22023 zeSobahuvrIhiH exclusive, are called tatpuruSa compounds.

Roughly explained, a tatpuruSa is a compound that means the same thing as its second half.

For instance, a policeman is a man, and a firefighter is a fighter, so these words are tatpuruSa compounds. Yet, Blackbeard was not a beard, but a pirate, so the compound "Blackbeard" is not a tatpuruSa (it is a longhorn, actually).

Back to types of compounds .

371 letters. -- 21.bse 227 -- popularity 10

(saJjJAyAm) (!saJ)

saMjJAyAm ONPANINI 21044
When used as a tag (a seventh may compound before any noun).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 159

Examples --

yudhi + sthiras → * yudhisthiras gaviyudhi yudhiSThiras "pn (of a king)"

araNyetilakAH "mere hype"

The compounding is compulsory when making a tag, and forbidden when these phrases are used in their proper meaning --

yudhi sthiraH "he's firm in battle"

araNye tilakAH "there are sesames in the forest"

KAZIKA saMjJAyAM viSaye saptayantaM supA saha samasyate, tatpuruSazca samAso bhavati. saMjJA samudAyopAdhiH. tena nitya-samAsa eva ayam, na hi vAkyena saMjJA gamyate. araNyetilakAH. araNyemASAH. vanekiMzukAH. vane bilvakAH. kUpepizAcakAH. haladantAt saptamyAH saMjJAyAm ity aluk.

236 letters. -- 21.bse 268 -- popularity 1

(pUrvakAlai) (!pUrvak)

pUrva-kAl'; .aika;sarva; jarat;purANa; nava;kevalAH samAnAdhikaraNena ONPANINI 21049
Previous time, eka-, sarva-, jarat, purANa, nava, kevala (optionally compound in front) of what they describe.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 160

Ordinarily, we cannot compound together to words that refer to the same thing to mean that same thing. For instance, we may not compound zvetas "white" in front of vAhanas "horse" to mean white horse (the compound zvetavAhanas is grammatical, but only when it means "the dude with the white horses").

This rule is an exception to that general rule. The words listed in the rule can be optionally compounded in front of the word they go with, without change of meaning.

Example with sarva- --

sarveSu bhUteSu "in all creatures" → * sarva-bhUteSu "in all creatures"

Example with a word meaning previous time --

kSetrANi kRSTAni tatasH samIkRtAni → * kSetrAni kRSTa-samIkRtAni "the fields were ploughed and then levelled"

KAZIKA sup supA iti vartate. tasya vizeSaNam etat. pUrvakAla eka sarva jarat purANa nava kevala ityete subantAH samAnAdhikaraNena supA saha samasyante, tatpuruSazca samAso bhavati. bhinnapravRttinimittasya zabdasya ekasminn arthe vRttiH sAmAnAdhikaraNyam. pUrvakAlaH ityarthanirdezaH, pariziSTAnAM svarUpagrahaNam. pUrvakAlo 'parakAlena samasyate. snAtAnuliptaH. kRSTasamIkRtam. dagdhaprarUDham. ekazATI. ekabhikSA. sarvadevAH. sarvamanuSyAH. jaraddhastI. jaradgRSTiH. jaradvRttiH. purANAnnam. purANAvasatham. navAnnam. navAvasatham. kevalAnnam. samAnAdhikaraNena iti kim? ekasyAH zATI.

565 letters. -- 21.bse 301 -- popularity none

(diksaGkhyesa) (!dik)

dik;saMkhye saMjJAyAm ONPANINI 21050
Compass-points and numerals may compound (with what they describe) to make a tag.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 161

Counterexamples --

To mean five zamI trees, we must say paJca zamyaH in two words -- we may not join paJca and zamyaH in a compound, by the same reason that we cannot compound sundarI zamI into a compound.

To mean seven sages, we may say saptarSayas.

Examples with a numeral --

paJcan- + zamyas → * paJcanzamyaH nalopaHprA paJcazamyas "Fivetrees (name of a village)"

sapta + RSayassaptarSayas "the Seven Sages" (name of the Big Dipper)

Example with a diz- --

pUrvA + iSukAmazamI → * pUrva- + iSukAmazamI AdguNaH pUrveSukAmazamI "east iSukAmazamI" (name of a village)

aparA + iSukAmazamI → * apara- + iSukAmazamI AdguNaH apareSukAmazamI "west iSukAmazamI" (name of a village)

KAZIKA samAnAdhikaraNena ityApAdasamApter anuvartate. digvAcinaH zabdAH saGkhyA ca samAnAdhikaraNena subantena saha samasyante, tatpuruSazca samAso bhavati saMjJayAM vaSaye. pUrveSukAmazamI. apareSukAmazamI. paJcAmrAH. saptarSayaH. saMjJAyAm iti kim? uttarA vRkSAH. paJca brAhmANAH.

493 letters. -- 21.bse 335 -- popularity none

(taddhitArtho) (!taddhitA)

taddhit%Arth%ottarapada-samAhAre ca ONPANINI 21051
( numeral and direction may compound) with the meaning of a taddhita, when former, and when meaning a group.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 162

(1) example with the meaning of a taddhita.

The taddhita aN may mean "prepared in" when talking about grains --

yavAH kumbhe saMskRtAH saMskRtaMbhakSAH yavAH kaumbhAH "barleygrains prepared in a pot"

This kaumbha- is kumbha plus aN --

kumbha "pot" + aN taddhiteSva kaumbha + a yasyetica kaumbha- "related to pots"

Therefore, according to this rule, we may also use the numeral paJca as a former to mean "prepared in", when talking about grains, and this time kumbha- gets no aN --

yavAH paJcasu kumbheSu saMskRtAH → * paJca + kumbha + jas dvigurekavacanam paJcakumbha + supaJcakumbhas "(barleygrains) prepared in five pots"

Rule dvigurekavacanam worked here because paJcakumbhAH is a dvigu by rule saGkhyApUrvodviguH below.

(2) Example when the new compound will be the former of another compound.

Ordinarily cannot compound together pUrvA zAlA "the Eastern Hall". But we can do that if the new compound will be the former of another compound , as in --

asmai pUrvA zAlA priyA "he likes the Eastern hall" → * pUrvazAlA-priyaH "one that likes the Eastern hall"

asmai paJca nAvaH priyAH "he likes five ships" → * paJca + nau- + priya + su nAvodvigoH paJca + nau + Tac + priya + su ecoya paJcanAva-priyaH "one that likes five ships"

Rule nAvodvigoH worked here because paJcanau- is a dvigu by rule saGkhyApUrvodviguH below.

(3) Examples meaning a group --

paJca pUlAsH samAhRtAH "five bundles taken together" → * paJca + pUla- dvigoH paJcapUlI- @f "a group of five bundles"

trINy ahAni samAhRtAni → * trINi + ahan- → .. → tryaha- @m "a group of three days"

KAZIKA dik-saGkhye ityanuvartate. taddhitArthe viSaye uttarapade ca parataH samAhAre ca abhidheye diksaGkhye samAnAdhikaraNena supA saha samasyete, tatpuruSazca samAso bhavati. taddhitArthe tAvat pUrvasyAM zAlAyAM bhavaH, dik-pUrva-padAd asaMjJAyAM JaH 42107, paurvazAlaH. AparazAlaH. uttarapade pUrvazAlApriyaH. aparazAlApriyaH. samAhAre dikzabdo na sambhavati. saGkhyA taddhitArthe pAJcanApitiH. paJcakapAlaH. uttarapade paJcagavadhanaH. dazagavadhanaH. samAhAre paJcapUlI. dazapUlI. paJcakumAri. dazakumAri. sa napuMsakam 24017 iti napuMsaka-tvam. hrasvo napuMsake prAtipadikasya 12047 iti hrasvatvam.

1114 letters. -- 21.bse 360 -- popularity 1

665 But /ahan- (loses tail) before !Ta /kha only.

(saGkhyApUrvo) (/dvig)

saGkhyA-pUrvo dviguH ONPANINI 21052
And if the former is a numeral they are dvigu too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 163

The compounds made by the previous rule are all tatpuruSa. If the first half is a numeral, they are dvigu too.

Example: "dvigu-", if it means "cowpair, a group of two cows", is a tatpuruSa, and, by this rule, it is also a dvigu compound. But if it means "(a guy) that has two cows" then it is not a tatpuruSa, and not a dvigu.

The dvigu are singular, by dvigurekavacanam.

277 letters. -- 21.bse 402 -- popularity 5

162 (@numeral and @direction may @compound) with the meaning of a /taddhita, when @former, and when meaning a group.

193 !rAtra- !ahna- !aha- are @masculine (in a /tatpuruSa or /dvandva).

396 ({a}-ender) /dvigu gets (/GIp).

489 [/nau-]-ender /dvigu (gets /Tac).

(naJ) (/naJ)

naJ ONPANINI 22006
naJ (makes tatpuruSa compounds optionally)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 164

The na(J) means na ("not", "there is no"), is an unchanging, and is used only as a former.

The J label of naJ just tells it apart from other na. The n is not a label, but is always deleted by naloponaJaH. After the remaining a, rule tasmAnnuDaci will sometimes add n.

Each compound of naJ + X may mean either "that has no X" --

a-rakSasaM vanam "the forest is demon-free"

a-brAhmaNaH puram "there are no brahmins in the city"

or "that is not X" --

tad an-Rtam "that's not true"

a-brAhmaNasH saH "he's not a brahmin"

Some may mean "lack of X, X-lessness" or "opposite of X" --

a-jJAnam "lack of knowledge, ignorance"

a-dharmaH "lack of righteousness, evil"

This naJ looks like a before consonants, but like an before vowels --

na + Rtam "it's not true" → * na(J) + Rtam naloponaJaH a + Rtam tasmAnnuDaci a + nRtamanRtam "it's untrue, it's a lie"

KAZIKA naJ samarthena subantena saha samasyate, tatpuruSazca samAso bhavati. na brAhmaNaH abrAhmaNaH. avRSalaH.

593 letters. -- 22.bse 1 -- popularity 8

401 But not after /saha- /naJ !vidyamAna.

409 /strI- /pums- get {na(J)'} {sna(J)}.

565 Delete /su of /sas /eSas before @consonant.

572 /Jit is what has label !J

707 /ktvA to /lyap in a @compound.

1207 /na means "no"

(SaSThI) (/SaST)

sixth (compounds optionally before the noun it links to)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 165

And the compound is tatpuruSa.

Usually, when a first, third, etc links to a noun, in cases like zuklazH zakuniH "white bird" or lavaNena mizritam "mixed with salt", we can only turn the two words into a compound if a rule allows it. The opposite is the case for the words that carry sixth. They can always compound optionally with the noun they go with. Unless, of course, one of the exceptions below says they cannot.

Examples --

tasya "his" + puruSaH "man" → * tasyapuruSaH supodhA tad- + puruSaH kharica tatpuruSaH "his man"

rajJas + puruSaH "man of the king, policeman" → * rAjJaspuruSaH → .. → rAjapuruSaH "man of the king, policeman"

See exception nanirdhAraNe below.

KAZIKA SaSThy-antaM subantaM samarthena subantena saha samasyate, tatpuruSazca samAso bhavati. rAjJaH puruSaH rAjapuruSaH. brAhmaNakambalaH. kRdyogA ca SaSThI samasyata iti vaktavyam. idhmaprabrazcanaH. palAzazAtanaH. kim artham idam ucyate? pratipadavidhAnA ca SaSThI na samasyate iti vakSyati, tasyAyaM purastAdapakarSaH.

498 letters. -- 22.bse 113 -- popularity 2

167 ([@Sixth] won't compound before a /tRc, or a /Nvul) that means a doer.

(nanirdhAra) (!nani)

na nirdhAraNe ONPANINI 22010
( sixth) doesn't (compound) when meaning specification.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 166 km

Exception to SaSThI. The sixth that means "among" (see 23041) won't compound.

So in --

kRSNA gavAM sampanna-kSIra-tamA "the German Black Pied has the highest milk production among cow breeds"

We may not say kRSNA gosampannakSIratamA.

KAZIKA pUrveNa samAse prApte pratiSedha Arabhyate. nirdhArane yA SaSThI sA na samasyate. jAtiguNakriyAbhiH samudAyAdekadezasya pRthakkaraNaM nirdhAranam. kSatriyo manuSyANAm zUratamaH. kRSNA gavAM sampannakSIratamA. dhavann adhvagAnAM zIghratamaH. pratipada-vidhAnA ca SaSThI na samasyate iti vaktavyam. sarpiSo jJAnam. madhuno jJAnam.

May I compound the seventh that means specification? As in kRSNA goSu sampanna-kSIra-tamA.

Of course not. If you could, this rule would be useless.

297 letters. -- 22.bse 145 -- popularity 2

187 @Sixth and @seventh can mean "among".

(kartarica) (!kartaric)

kartari ca ONPANINI 22016
( Sixth won't compound before a tRc, or a Nvul) that means a doer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 167 km

Exception to SaSThI.

So these pairs won't form compounds --

lokAnAmM bhettA "destroyer of worlds"

kumbhAnAGM kartA "maker of pots"

kumbhAnAGM kArakaH "maker of pots"

vajrasya bhartA "bearer of the Aegis"

KAZIKA kartari ca yau tRj-akau tAbhyAM saha SaSThI na samasyate. sAmarthyAdakasya vizeSaNArthaM kartR-grahaNam, itaratra vyabhicArAbhAvAt. apAM sraSTA. purAM bhettA. vajrasya bhartA. nanu ca bhartRzabdo hy ayaM yAjakAdiSu paThyate? sambandhi-zabdasya patiparyAyasya tatra grahanam. akaH khalvapi odanasya bhojakaH. saktUnAM pAyakaH.

So I can't make a compound that means "destroyer of worlds"? Lame!

Sure you can. Just don't use tRc or Nvul after your root, use some other kRt that means "doer" --

kumbhakAra- "potter"

lokabhid- "planetcracker"

What's a planetcracker?

Same as a nutcracker, just way bigger.

369 letters. -- 22.bse 285 -- popularity 1

65 Rules that apply to whatever, apply to whatever-enders.

(zeSobahu) (!zeSo)

zeSo bahuvrIhiH ONPANINI 22023
The rest are longhorns.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 168 km

headline. The compounds described by the next five rules ( anekamanyapadArthe to tenasaheti) are called longhorn compounds.

Actually, when we say " longhorn", we usually mean a compound made by anekamanyapadArthe. The compounds described by the next four rules are not properly longhorns, but they behave in grammar as if they were, so they are subject to rules such as bahuvrIhau prakRtyA pUrva-padam.

KAZIKA upayukatAd anyaH zeSaH. SezaH samAso bahuvrIhisaMjJo bhavati. kaz ca zeSaH samAso noktaH. vakSyati anekam anyapadArthe citraguH. zabalaguH. kRSNottarAsaGgaH. zeSaH iti kim? unmattagaGgam. lohitagaGgam. bahuvrIhipradezAH. na bahuvrIhAv ity evam AdayaH.

327 letters. -- 22.bse 411 -- popularity 2

158 /tatpuruSa start here.

585 (/saha- to /sa-) optionally in a @longhorn.

(anekama) (@longh)

anekam anya-pad%Arthe ONPANINI 22024
(A longhorn is) two or more ( compounded) to mean something else.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 169 km

A longhorn is a sort of compound made by joining several nouns, and that describes something else than those words.


"longhorn" means a sort of cow (that has long horns). Therefore it doesn't mean a horn. Therefore it is a longhorn compound.

"white-eye" means a sort of bird (that has a white ring around the eyes). It does not mean any kind of eye, so it is a longhorn compound.

bahuvrIhi- (much-riced) means a person that has lots of rice, so a rich person. It does not mean a sort of rice, so it is a longhorn compound.


The word "foghorn" means a sort of horn, used to warn ships in foggy conditions. Therefore it is not a longhorn compound.

kRSNazakuni- (black-bird) means a crow (Corvus splendens). A crow is a kind of bird, so kRSNazakunis is not a longhorn compound when it means a crow.

There is a very important difference between English longhorn compounds and Sanskrit longhorn compounds. An English dictionary will tell you that the word "longhorn" is a noun can only be used to mean a certain breed of cattle. However, the corresponding Sanskrit dIrgha-zRGga- means "long-horned", and can be used to mean anything that has long horns, or just to mean "has long horns", not necessarily cattle --

dIrgha-zRGgazH zambUkaH "the snail has long horns"

dIrgha-zRGgaM zambUkamM pazyAmi "I see that the snail has long horns, I see a snail that has long horns"

The Sanskrit longhorn compounds are naturally adjectives that describe something else. Therefore they will take the gender of whatever they describe --

dIrgha-zRGgo gauH "long-horned bull; the bull is long-horned"

dIrgha-zRGgA gauH "long-horned cow"

dIrgha-zRGgI gauH "long-horned cow"

dIrgha-zRGgaM rakSaH "long-horned demon"

Like all adjectives, they can be used with or without the noun they describe --

dIrgha-zmazruH puruSaH "a long-bearded man, a man with a long beard; the man has a long beard"

dIrgha-zmazruH "a long-bearded one, the one with a long beard; he has a long beard; Longbeard (a nickname)"

KAZIKA anekaM subantam anyapadArthe vartamAnaM supA saha samasyate, bahuvrIhizca samAso bhavati. prathamArtham ekaM varjayitvA sarveSu vibhakty-artheSu bahuvrIhir bhavati. prAptam udakaM yaM grAmaM prAptodako grAmaH. UDha-ratho 'naDvAn. upagRta-pazU rudraH. udghRtaudanA sthAlI. citragur devadattaH. vIra-puruSako grAmaH. prathamArthe tu na bhavati. vRSTe deve gataH. anekagrahanaM kim? bahUnAm api yathA syAt, susUkSmajaTakezena sugajAjinavAsasA. samantazitirandhreNa dvayor vRttau na sidhyati. bahuvrIhiH samAnAdhikaraNAnam iti vaktavyam. vyadhikaraNAnAM mA bhUt, paJcabhir bhuktamasya.avyayAnAM ca bahuvrIhir vaktavyaH. uccair-mukhaH. nIcair-mukhaH. saptamy upamAna-pUrva-padasya uttara-pada-lopaz ca vaktavyaH. kaNThe sthitaH kAlo 'sya kaNThekalaH. urasilomA. uSTrasya mukham iva mukhaM yasya sa uSTramukhaH. kharamukhaH. samudAyavikAraSaSThyAzca bahuvrIhiruttarapadalopazca iti vaktavyam. kezAnAM saGghAtaH kezasaGghAtaH, kezasaGghAtaH cUDA 'sya kezacUDaH. suvarNasya vikAro 'laGkAro 'sya suvarNAlaGkAraH. prAdibhyo dhatujasya uttarapadasya lopazca vA bahuvrIhir vaktavyaH. prapatitaM parNamasya praparNaH, prapatitaparNaH. pratitaM palAzamasya prapalAzaH, prapatitapalAzaH. naJo 'styarthAnAM bahuvrIhir vAcottarapadalopazca vaktavyaH. AvidyamAnaH putro yasya aputraH, avidyamAnaputraH. abhAryaH, avidyamAnabhAryaH. subadhikAre 'stikSIrAdInAM bahuvrIhir vaktavyaH. astikSIrA brAhmaNI. astyAdayo nipAtAH.

May I use kRSNazakunis to mean any black bird?

No. You must say kRSNazH zakuniH when you mean a black bird. But this rule allows kRSNazakuni- to describe anything that has black birds.

1707 letters. -- 22.bse 459 -- popularity 21

(tenasahe) (!tenas)

tena sah%eti tulya-yoge ONPANINI 22028
"With him", if the action is shared.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 170

Adding the trickle, and taking samarthAnA into account, this rule means --

"The form saha- may be compounded before a third-ender that does the same action as the doer of the sentence, and that compound is a longhorn."

Example. If the priest leaves, and his sons leave too, and they all leave together, then they all share the same action. In such a situation we may say --

gacchati vipraH putraisH saha "the priest leaves with (his) sons"

Here, putrais is a third-ender, and took bhis because of saha. So, this rule allows us to replace putrais saha with a compound of saha + putrais. The compound nounbase will be sahaputra-, and it will take the gender, case and number of the priest --

gacchati viprasH sahaputraH "the priest leaves with (his) sons"

Notice that because we erased the bhis of putrais and added the su of the priest, we always end up saying sahaputras in the singular, no matter if we started with putrais, putrAbhyAm or putreNa.

Why does pANini say that sahaputra- is a longhorn? Being a longhorn allows vopa to work, so we may also say --

gacchati viprasH saputraH "the priest leaves with (his) sons"

See also sa-compound confusion .

KAZIKA saha ity etac chAbda-rUpaM tulya-yoge vartamAnaM tena iti tRtIyA-'ntena saha samasyate, bahuvrIhiz ca samAso bhavati. saha putreNAgataH saputraH. sacchAtraH. sakarmakaraH. tulyayoge iti kim? sahaiva dazabhiH putrair bhAraM vahati gardabhI. vidyamAtair eva dazabhiH putrair bhAraM vahati ity arthaH. kathaM sakarmakaH, salomakaH, sapakSakaH iti? na hy atra tulyayogo gamyate. kiM tarhi? vidyamAnatA. prAyikaM tulyayoge iti vizeSanam. anyatrApi samAso dRzyate.

896 letters. -- 22.bse 667 -- popularity 4

168 The rest are [@longhorn]s.

(cArthedvandvaH) (/dva)

c/Arthe dvaMdvaH ONPANINI 22029
dvandva compounds mean "and".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 171

We may replace any number of nouns joined by "and" with a compound.

Example. You may replace optionally --

azvo gajaz ca "horse and elephant" with azva-gajau "horse and elephant"

mUSikAnAnM narANAJM ca "of mice and men" with mUSika-narANAm "of mice and men"

The compound has the same case as all the nouns, the same gender as the last one, and its number is the sum of the numbers --

sItArAmau ramete

rAmasIte ramete

There are many rules about dvandva compounds, but some shoul not be taken seriously, like alpActaram.

404 letters. -- 22.bse 726 -- popularity 6

193 !rAtra- !ahna- !aha- are @masculine (in a /tatpuruSa or /dvandva).

579 Replace !R -enders with {An(aG)} (when @former) in a /dvandva.

909 !dvaMdva- means "secret", "limit", "separation", "employing as a sacrificial vessel", "manifestation".

1248 @former and @latter

1327 Types of [@compound]s.

(alpActaram) (!alp)

alpActaram ONPANINI 22034
The one with the less vowels (goes first in a dvandva).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 172

In a dvandva, place the word with less vowels first --

plakSa;nyagrodhau "the plakSa and the nyagrodha trees"

This rule is just a suggestion. Disobey it if you like. Everybody does that.

How do you know that it's just a suggestion?

Because rule lakSaNa-hetvoH kriyAyAH was not worded as hetu-lakSaNayoH kriyAyAH.

249 letters. -- 22.bse 798 -- popularity 1

(kaDArAHka) (!kaD)

kaDArAH karmadhAraye ONPANINI 22038
Optionally swap karmadhAraya compounds of kaDAra- etc.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 173

So, these two compounds are good --

kaDAra-jaiminiH "jaimini the servant"

jaimini-kaDAraH "the servant jaimini"

KAZIKA gunazabdAnAM vizeSanatvAt pUrvanipAte prApte vikalpa ucyate. kaDArAdayaH karmadhAraye samAse vA pUrvaM. prayoktavyAH. kaDArajaiminiH, jaiminikaDAraH. kaDAra. guDula. kANa. khaJja. kuNTha. khaJjara. khalati. gaura. vRddha. bhikSuka. piGgala. tanu. vaTara. karmadharaye iti kim? kaDArapuruSo grAmaH. iti zrIjayAdityaviracitAyAM kAzikAyAM vRttau dvitIyAdhyAyasya dvitIya pAdaH. dvitIyAdhyAyasya tRtIyaH pAdaH

88 letters. -- 22.bse 829 -- popularity 2

110 Down to !!kaDArA, just ONE @term.

156 Up to !kaDAra, @compound.

14056 nipAta, person ←

chunk 12: 21003 compounds

→ 23001 use of cases