23001 use of cases ←

chunk 14: 24037 root replacements

→ 24072 some vikaraNa

24037 ad to ghas before luG and san. luGsanorghasL
24041 veJ to vay . veJovayiH
24042 han to vadha before liG. hanovadhaliGi
24043 before luG . luGica
24044 optionally before bent . AtmanepadeSvanyatarasyAm
24045 iN' and ik to gAG before luG. iNogAluGi
24048 iG too to } before san iGazca
24049 gAG before liT. gAGliTi
24050 optionally before luG lRG. vibhASAluGlRGoH
24052 Replace as with bhU . asterbhUH
24053 brU to vac . bruvovaciH
24071 sup to inside root and nounbase. supodhAtuprAtipadikayoH




(luGsanorgha) (!luGs)

luG-sanor ghasL ONPANINI 24037
ad to ghas before luG and san.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 194

Examples --

ad + luG tip → * ghas(L) + tip luGlaG aghasL + tip puSAdidyu aghas + aG + tiaghas + a + t'''aghasat "ate"

ad + san + laT tip → * ghas + san + tip sassyA ghat + san + tip → .. → jighatsati "wants to eat"

KAZIKA luGi sani ca parato 'do ghasL Adezo bhavati. Ldit-karaNam aG-artham. luGi aghasat, aghasatAm, aghasan. sani jighatsati, jighatsataH, jighatsanti. ghasL-bhAve 'cy upasaGkhyAnam. prAtti iti praghasaH.

113 letters. -- 24.bse 55 -- popularity 2

837 (/t''' /s''' get /aT) after /ad.




(veJovayiH) (!veJo)

veJo vayiH ONPANINI 24041
veJ to vay (optionally before liT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 195

Long story short, this teaches that the liT of veJ may optionally be like the liT of vac, but with y instead of c --

uvAya Uyatus Uyus "wove"

If we do not take this option, veJ makes its liT as if it were vA (see Adeca_u), but it does not get the liTyabhyAsa stretching because of the exception veJaH --

vavau vavatus vavus "wove"

KAZIKA liTyanyatarasyAm iti vartate. veJo vayiH Adezo bhavati anyatrasyAM liTi parataH. ikAra uccAraNArthaH. uvAya, UyatuH, UyuH. pakSe UvatuH, UvuH. liTi vayo yaH iti yakArasya samprasAraNaM pratiSidhyate. vazcAsyAnyatarasyAM kiti] iti vakAro vidhIyate vavau, vavatuH, vavuH. veJa iti samprasAraNaM na bhavati.

251 letters. -- 24.bse 60 -- popularity 1




(hanovadha) (/vadh)

hano vadha liGi ONPANINI 24042
han to vadha before ( soft) liG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 196

Examples --

han + @soft liG tashan + @soft yAt'''' → * vadha + yAt atolopaH vadhyAt "may he kill"

han + @soft liG tashan + yAstAm'''vadha + yAstAm atolopaH vadhyAstAm "may both kill"

han + @soft liG jhihan + yAsus''' → * vadha + yAsus atolopaH vadhyAsus "may they kill"

But before hard liG the han stays --

han + @hard yAt'''hanyAt "may he kill"

KAZIKA hanter dhAtoH vadha ityayam Adezo bhavati liGi parata ArdhadhAtuke. vadhyAt, vadhyAstAm, vadhyAsuH. akArAntazca ayam AdezaH. tatra akArasya lopo bhavati. tasya sthAnivadbhAvAd avadhId iti halantalakSanA vRddhiH na bhavati.

225 letters. -- 24.bse 70 -- popularity 6

74 After /han, /sic (is /kit before @bent).

197 (Replace /han with /vadha) before /luG (and @soft /liG).

198 (/han to /vadha) optionally before @bent (/luG).

621 /sya /sic /sIyuT /tAs before /akartari get /ciNvadiT optionally after vowelenders, /han, /grah, and /dRz.




(luGica) (!luGi)

luGi ca ONPANINI 24043
(Replace han with vadha) before luG (and soft liG).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 197

As in --

han + luG tip → .. → aT + han + t''' → * a + vadha + tavadha + sic + t atolopaH avadh + s + tavadh + s + It''' iTa::ITi avadhIt "he killed"

See exception AtmanepadeSvanyatarasyAm below.

KAZIKA luGi ca parataH hano vadha ityayam Adezo bhavati. avadhIt, avadhISTAm, avadhiSuH. yogavibhAga uttarArthaH. AtmanepadeSu luGi vikalpo yathA syAl liGi mA bhUt.

How come this rule was not run together with the previous one? The wording hanovadhaliGluGoH would have worked fine.

Indeed it would. Yet, your wording would have given the wrong trickle to AtmanepadeSv anyatarasyAm right below.

Question. In avadhIt, shouldn't vadh have become vAdh by vadavraja?

There is some heavy trickery involved here. When atolopaH replaces vadha with vadh + lopa, the lopa is sthAnivad to a because acaHparasmin says so. So this vadh + lopa ends in a, and is not a halanta, and vadavraja cannot work.

534 letters. -- 24.bse 91 -- popularity 4

621 /sya /sic /sIyuT /tAs before /akartari get /ciNvadiT optionally after vowelenders, /han, /grah, and /dRz.




(Atmanepa) (!AtmanepadeSvanyatarasyAm)

AtmanepadeSv anyatarasyAm ONPANINI 24044
( han to vadha) optionally before bent ( luG).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 198

So before bent, we can either let luGica work --

AG + han + luG ta luGica A + vadha + taAvadha + sic + ta ArdhadhAtukasyeD Avadha + iSic + ta atolopaH Avadh + iS + ta STunA AvadhiSTa "he hit"

A + han + luG AtAmA + vadha + AtAm → .. → AvadhiSAtAm "both hit"

AvadhiSata "they hit"

Or leave the han in place --

Ahan + sic + ta hanassic Ahan + (k)sic + ta anudAttopadeza Aha + s + ta hrasvAdaGgAt Ahata "he hit"

Ahan + sic + AtAm → .. → AhasAtAm "both hit"

Ahan + sic + jhaAhan + sic + ata''' → .. → Ahasata "they hit"

This sutra sounds exactly like AtmanepadeSvanyatarasyAmx.

Wait... isn't han a flatty root? How come it got bent endings above?

han is flatty, but not after AG -- see AGoyamahanaH.

415 letters. -- 24.bse 122 -- popularity 4

199 /iN' and !ik to /gAG before /luG.

1626 about the letter !x in rules




(iNogAlu) (!iNog)

iNo gA luGi ONPANINI 24045
iN' and ik to gAG before luG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 199

The roots i(N)' gatau "go" and i(k) smaraNe "memorize" 02.0042 turn into gA(G) before luG.

After this gA, sic is deleted by gAtisthA.

Examples --

iN' + luG tip → * gAG + tip luGlaG agA + tipagA + t'''agA + sic + t gAtisthA agAt "he went"

adhi + ik + luG tip → * adhi + gA + tip luGlaG adhi + agA + tip ikoyaNaci adhyagA + tipadhyagA + t'''adhyagA + sic + t''' gAtisthA adhyagAt "he remembered"

adhi + ik + luG jhi → .. → adhyagus "they remembered" ( same steps, plus usya )

The root i(G) adhIte adhyayane "study" gets this change optionally by vibhASA luGlRGoH. As in adhyaiSTa, adhyagISTa.

KAZIKA iNaH gA ity ayam Avezo bhavati luGi parataH. agAt, agAtAm, aguH. luGi iti vartamAne punar luG-grahaNam AtmanepadeSvanyatarasyAm 24044 ityetan mA bhUt. iha tv a-vizeSeNa nityaM ca bhavati. agAt. agAyi bhavatA. iNvadika iti vaktavyam. adhyagAt, adhyagAtAm, adhyaguH.

376 letters. -- 24.bse 158 -- popularity 2

621 /sya /sic /sIyuT /tAs before /akartari get /ciNvadiT optionally after vowelenders, /han, /grah, and /dRz.




(iGazca) (!iG)

iGaz ca ONPANINI 24048
iG too to (gam(i) before san)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 200

Example --

adhi + iG + san → * adhi + gam + san sanyaGoH adhigagamsa kuhozcuH adhijagamsa sanyataH adhijigamsa ajjhana adhijigAmsa nazcA adhijigAMsa "want to study"

This gam is Git because iG is Git, so it's bendy by anudAttaGita --

adhijigAmsa + laT ta → .. → adhijigAMsate "he wants to study"

KAZIKA iGaz ca sani parato gamir Adezo bhavati. adhijigAMsate, adhijigAMsete, adhijigAMsante.

186 letters. -- 24.bse 209 -- popularity 1




(gAGliTi) (/gA)

gAG liTi ONPANINI 24049
( iG to) gAG before liT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 201

The root iG "study" turns into gA(G) before liT (by this rule), and before luG lRG (by vibhASA luG;lRGoH below).

Example --

adhi + iG + liT taadhi + iG + ez → * adhi + gAG + e liTidhA adhi + jagA + e gAGkuTAdi adhijage "he studied"

The A of this gA falls before whatever is not JNit, like in this example, and also before Git, by Atolopa_i.

KAZIKA gAG-Adezo bhavati iGo liTi parataH. adhijage, adhijagAte, adhijagire. gAGo 'nubandha-grahaNaM vizeSanArtham, gAGkuTAdibhyo 'JNin Gid ity atra asya grahaNaM yathA syAt. na hi sthAnivadbhAvena gAG iti rUpaM labhyate.

225 letters. -- 24.bse 230 -- popularity 4

199 /iN' and !ik to /gAG before /luG.

209 /sic (to /luk) before @flat after !gAti /sthA /ghu !pA !bhU.




(vibhASAlu) (!vibhASAl)

vibhASA luG;lRGoH ONPANINI 24050
( iG to gAG) optionally before luG lRG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 202

Before luG or lRG, we may replace iG "study" with gA(G) --

adhi + iG + luG ta → * adhi + gAG + ta luGlaG adhi + a + gA + ta → .. → adhyagA + sic + ta gAGkuTAdi adhyagA + (G)s(ic) + ta ghu;mA;sthA;gA adhyagI + s + ta → .. → adhyagISTa "he studied"

adhi + iG + lRG ta → * adhi + gAG + ta → .. → adhyagA + sya + ta → .. → adhyagISyata "he would have studied"

If we choose not to replace, business as usual --

adhi + iG + luG ta AD-aj-AdInAm adhi + ( AT + i ) + ta ATazca adhi + ai + taadhi + ai + sic + taadhyai + s + ta → .. → adhyaiSTa "he studied"

adhi + iG + lRG ta → .. → adhyai + sya + ta kric adhyaiSyata "he would have studied"

KAZIKA luGi lRGi ca parata iGo vibhASA gAG-Adezo bhavati. AdezapakSe gAG kuTAdibhyo 'JNin Git iti Gittvam, ghumAsthAgApAjahAtisAM hali iti Itvam. adhyagISTa, adhyagISAtAm, adhyagISata. na ca bhavati. adhyaiSTa, adhyaiSAtAm, adhyaiSata. lRGi khalv api adhyagISyata, adhyagISyetAm, adhyagISyanta. na ca bhavati. adhyaiSyata, adhyaiSyetAm, adhyaiSyanta.

339 letters. -- 24.bse 258 -- popularity 3

199 /iN' and !ik to /gAG before /luG.

621 /sya /sic /sIyuT /tAs before /akartari get /ciNvadiT optionally after vowelenders, /han, /grah, and /dRz.




(asterbhUH) (!aste)

aster bhUH ONPANINI 24052
Replace as with bhU (before soft).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 203

So we will only hear as before hard affixes.

Example before soft tAs --

as + luT tipas + tAs + tipas + tA → * bhU + tA ArdhadhAtukasyeD bhu + itA + tip hardsoft bho + itA ecoya bhavitA

Example before soft sya --

as + lRT tip → .. → as + iSya + tip → * bhU + iSya + tip → .. → bhaviSyati "there will be"

zuklazH zakunir bhaviSyati "there will be a white bird; the bird will turn white"

Example before liT ( liT is soft by liTca) --

as + liTas + Nal → * bhU + Nal bhuvovugluGliToH bhUv + Nal liTidhA bhUbhUv + a abhyAsecarca bUbhUva hrasvaH bubhUva bhavateraH babhUva "there was"

tato dazarathaH prApya pAyasanM devanirmitam | babhUva paramaprItaH prApya vittam ivAdhanaH ||

There is an exception to this rule: the auxiliary as is not replaced with bhU .

467 letters. -- 24.bse 280 -- popularity 6

50 But what has two or more letters, or is /zit, replaces the whole.

51 Replacement is like original, except for letter-rules.

1347 @auxiliary roots




(bruvovaciH) (!bruvo)

bruvo vaciH ONPANINI 24053
brU to vac (before soft).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 204

This is the same thing as saying that root brU can only be used before hard. So, we'll only hear brU before laT, laG, loT and hard liG --

brU + laT tip bruva::IT brU + Itip hardsoft bro + Iti ecoya bravIti "says"

Elsewhere, replace brU with vac. Or with any of the roots for "say" , actually.

KAZIKA bruvo vacirAdezo bhavati ArdhadhAtukaviSaye. ikAra uccAraNArthaH. vaktA. vaktum. vaktavyam. sthAnivadbhAvena kartrabhiprAyakriyAphalavivakSAyAm AtmanepadaM bhavati. Uce. vakSyate.

195 letters. -- 24.bse 301 -- popularity 4

51 Replacement is like original, except for letter-rules.

505 (@Stretch) /vac, /svap, {yaj}-class before /kit.




(supodhAtu) (/alu)

supo dhAtu;prAtipadikayoH ONPANINI 24071
sup to ( luk) inside root and nounbase.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 205

This rule can be reworded into:

" sup to luk before rootmaker, before taddhita, when former. "

Example before taddhita --

apatyanM dakSasyadakSasya + iN → * dakSa + iN taddhiteSva dAkSa + i yasyetica dAkSi- "descendant of dakSa"

Example before a sanAdi --

putram + icchatiputram + kyac → * putra + kyac kyacica putrIya "to want to have a son"

Example of former --

When joining brahmaNas "of brahmA" and lokas "world" into a compound, the former, brahmaNas, made from brahman- + Gas, loses its Gas --

brahmaNas + lokas "Brahma's world" → * brahman + lokas nalopaHprA brahmaloka- "Brahmaworld"

In some compounds this rule does not work. Those are called " aluk compounds ". See gaviyudhi for an example.

KAZIKA supo vibhakterdhAtusaMjJAyAH prAtipadikasaMjJAyAzca lug bhavati. tadantargatAstadgrahaNena gRhyante. dhAtostAvat putrIyati. ghaTIyati. prAtipadikasya kaSTazritaH. rAjapuruSaH. dhAtuprAtipadikayoH iti kim? vRkSaH. plakSaH.

489 letters. -- 24.bse 338 -- popularity 59
















23001 use of cases ←

chunk 14: 24037 root replacements

→ 24072 some vikaraNa