the tiG groups ←

chunk 59: special roots

→ special nounbases

Special roots.
dru "run"
kram "walk"
rudh "stop, obstruct"
cint "think"
ad "eat"
aJcati "is at"
As "sit".
as asti "be there, be".
as' asyati "throw"
ghas "eat"
pracch "ask"
hve "call, summon, challenge"
kLp "befit"
krI "buy"
labh "get"
mA' "measure"
nI "lead", pac "cook"
ji "win"
jJA "know"
vas' "live at"
vye "cover, cover up"
yaj "sacrifice"
stu' "praise"
grah "take, grab, accept"
sthA "stop, stay, stand"
sic' "sprinkle"
svap 'sleep'
vah vahati "carries, conveys"
vap "sow, scatter"
yu "join, mix"
yuj "join"
zAs "instruct"
Rcch Rcchati "go"
UrNu "cover, hide"
dA "give", dhA "put"
arti "go"
brU "say"
hu "pour"
Roots for "say".
kR means "do, make"
kR with u
bhU "be there, be"
sad "sit"
dRz "see"
dviS "hate"
iS "want"
vid "know"
ac disambiguation
zIG "lie down, sleep"
gam "go"
pAti "protects" pibati "drinks".
iN' "go"
iG of adhi + i "study"
zru "hear, listen"
plu means "jump, float, swim, sail".
han means "kill".
han before tiG
rootnoun han-
ve "weave"

(specialroots) (specialr)

Special roots.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1145

The roots in this section either are affected by special rules, or can be easily mixed up with other roots.

aJcati "is at"

ad "eat"

As "sit"

asti "there is"

asyati "throws"

brU "say"

dRz "see"

dviS "hate"

gam "go"

ghas "eat"

grah "grab"

han "kill"

han- "killer"

hu "pour"

iS "want"

ji "win"

jJA "know"

krI "buy"

kLp "befit"

labh "get"

pA pibati "drink"

pA' pAti "protect"

plu "float, jump"

Rcch Rcchati "go"

stu' "praise in verse"

sthA "stop, stay, stand"

svap "sleep"

UrNu "cover, hide"

vap "sow, scatter"

veJ "weave"

vid "know"

yu "join"

zAs "instruct; wish"

zIG "lie down, sleep"

stretchable roots:

vacisvapi roots

grahijyA roots

auxiliary roots:

kR "do, make"

bhU "be there, be"

as "be there, be"

490 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 73 -- popularity 29

(/dru) (/dr)

dru "run"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1146

dru dravati 01.1095 means "run" or "go".

This root makes an anomalous luG, see Ni;zri;dru;sru.

Another way of saying "run" is dhAvati, from root sR 01.1085 (the sR becomes dhau by pAghrA).

131 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 121 -- popularity 1

925 (!u !U of @stammer) of {sru zru dru pru plu cyu} (plus /san to !i) optionally (when their /yaN is before !A !a).

(/kram) (/kra)

kram "walk"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1147

The root kram 01.0545 means "walk" or "advance by steps, progress".

It is flatty, but when it has no preverbs, rule anupasargAdvA makes it optionally bendy --

13082038c na tatra kramate mRtyur na jarA na ca pAvakaH

It must also be bendy when rules vRttisargatAyaneSu kramaH ff say so.

212 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 130 -- popularity 3

928 (@stammer) that ends in !a of (/yaG /yaGluk) root that ends in !m gets {n(uk)}.

(/rudh) (/rud)

rudh "stop, obstruct"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1148

rudh rudh(ir) 07.0001 "obstruct, impede, stop someone" is the first root of the znamclass. It is flattybendy.

80 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 152 -- popularity 1

1347 ta ta synchretism

(/cint) (/cin)

cint "think"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1149

The root cint 10.0002 "think" is used often as an example of nichclass roots, together with cur 10.0001 "steal".

78 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 152 -- popularity 2

1568 /nAyi, /kAri, /pAci, /cori, /cinti

1682 There are two sorts of /Nic.

(/ad) (/ad)

ad "eat"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1150

ad is a lukclass root.

Because of adaHsarveSAm, it gets a here --

adas "you eat"

adat "eats"

Back to special roots .

85 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 160 -- popularity 5

201 /ad to /ghas before /luG and /san.

1354 About the /dhAtupATha.

(/aJcu) (/aJc)

aJcati "is at"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1151

The root aJc(u) aJcati means "is at, leans towards, bends". It seldom used in verbs, but its rootnoun ac''' is found at the end of a couple dozen compounds such as prAc- "eastern", pratyac- "Western", dadhyac- "another name of the sage dadhIci-". These are found once in a while, and are affected by some weird rules.

The u of the root aJcu is a label. The J is real, but disappears in the rootnoun by aniditA.

The rootnoun is called " ac''' ", and has kvin by rule kvin --

aJcu + kvin aniditA ac'''

Some rules that affect ac'''-ender compounds --




See also ac disambiguation

441 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 170 -- popularity 13

(/As) (/As)

As "sit".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1152

The root ad 02.0011 As Asa~ Aste means "sit". It is objectless and seT.

As plus zAnac makes AsIna-, by rule IdAsaH.

Back to special roots .

97 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 313 -- popularity 15

(/as) (/as)

as asti "be there, be".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1153

as is a lukclass root and means "be, be there, exist". Sometimes it is called asti, to keep it apart from as' asyati "throw".

as is an auxiliary root.

as must be replaced with bhU before most soft --

as + liT tip asterbhUH bhU + tip → .. → babhUva "was"

and may be replaced with bhU everywhere else.

as may lose a by znasora --

as + laT jhias + anti''' znasora santi "there are"

and loses s before sip --

as + sip tAs;astyorlopaH asi

Back to special roots .

303 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 323 -- popularity 19

(/asyati) (/asy)

as' asyati "throw"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1154

The root as' kSepaNe 04.0106 means "throw"

It is called asyati in some rules ( asyatesthuk, asyativakti), to keep it apart from as "be".

as + laT tipas + zyan + tipasyati "he throws"

Back to special roots .

148 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 472 -- popularity 4

(/ghas) (/ghas)

ghas "eat"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1155

Listed as ghas(L) in the dhAtupATha.

Mentioned at --



61 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 481 -- popularity 5

662 (@Nexttolast) of /gam /han {jan khan} /ghas to /lopa before (@vowel) /kGit that is not /aG.

902 !s to ( !t ) before @soft !s.

1020 (!s) of /zAs /vas' /ghas (to !S after /kric).

1145 Special roots.

(/pracch) (/pracc)

pracch "ask"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1156

This is root 06.0149. It is spelled as prach in the dhAtupATha, but you'll often see it spelled as pracch elsewhere.

As it is a grahijyA root, it becomes pRch sometimes --

prach + laT tipprach + za + tip grahijyA pRcchati "asks"

( za always has G from hard apit is Git .)

prach + kta grahijyA pRch + ta checa pRcch + ta cchvoHzU pRz + ta vrazcabhrasja pRSTa STunA pRSTa- "asked"

232 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 491 -- popularity 2

105 After /sam, roots /gam /Rcch /pracch !svar !R !zru !vid /dRz (get @bent if @objectless).

(/hveJ) (/hv)

hve(J) "call, summon, challenge"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1157

hve hveJ hvayati sphardhAyAM zabde ca 01.1163.

Affected by --


vacisvapi and halaH


Back to special roots .

95 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 501 -- popularity 3

(/kLp) (/kL)

kLp "befit"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1158

kLp kalpate "be fit for, befit, be proper, be prepared; be shared by"

This root is the only one that has L.

79 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 521 -- popularity 7

280 (/kyap) after @nexttolast !R, except /kLp and !cRt

853 Replace @nexttolast @short /ik (with /guNa before @hard and @soft).

1066 !L works like !R.

1145 Special roots.

1469 HKL transliteration

1479 pronunciation of !L

1536 /Rk are {R q L}

(/krI) (/krI)

krI "buy"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1159

The root krI "buy" 09.0001 has nothing especial, but it appears a lot in grammar examples because it is the first root of the znaclass, and because it is flattybendy --

krINAti "he buys"

krINIte "he buys"

With vi in front, it means "sell".

Back to special roots .

195 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 530 -- popularity 4

1347 ta ta synchretism

1566 /gRhNA, /punA, /jinA, /puSNA, /krINA

(/labh) (/lab)

labh "get"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1160

The root labh DulabhaS 01.1130 "get" is very commonly found in grammar examples, because it is bendy.

As it is a Dvit, it can get ktri --

labh + tri jhaSasta;tho labh + dhri jhalAMjazjhazi labdhri ktrerma labdhrima "gotten"

136 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 542 -- popularity 1

1145 Special roots.

(/mAG') (/mAG')

mA(G)' "measure"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1161

The root mA mAG mAne mimIte 03.0007 means "measure".

Before zlu, it reduplicates with i by bhRJAmit --


Before liT it reduplicates normally: mamau (with Ata_au), mamatus, mamus.

Makes -mAya- "measurer" by hvAvAmazca.

There is also an unchanging mAG that mean's "don't".

Back to special roots .

225 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 552 -- popularity 2

1569 /dadA /juhu /bibhI /mimA /bibhR /jahA

(/nI) (/nI)

nI "lead", pac "cook"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1162

The roots...

nI NI(J) prApaNe "lead, carry" 01.1049 flattybendy aniT

pac (Du)pac(aS) pAke "cook" 01.1151 flattybendy aniT

...appear very often in grammar examples.

Root nI is special in the rule GerAm.

pac is affected by the special rule pacovaH.

In theory, there is a slight meaning difference between the flat --

nayAmy ajAGM grAmam "I'm leading the goat to the village"

pacAmi kukkuTIm "I'm cooking the hen" (for others, maybe I'll eat some)

and the bent --

naye 'jAm "I'm keeping the goat for myself"

pace kukkuTIm "I'm cooking the hen" (and will eat all of it)

But, in practice, you may choose flat or bent wildly, and no one will complain.

Back to special roots .

499 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 570 -- popularity 15

(/ji) (/ji)

ji "win"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1163

The root ji means "win (a war, fight), conquer, defeat".

Because of rule sanliTorjeH, it sometimes looks like jigi.

Back to special roots .

105 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 591 -- popularity 3

691 !tR (to /lopa) before {iSTha(n)} {Iyas(un)}.

(/jJA) (/jJA)

jJA "know"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1164

This is the very common znaclass root 09.0043 "know". It is affected by the especial rules --

jJA;janor jA


jJA;zru; smR;dRzAM sanaH

apahnave jJaH

Back to special roots .

137 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 600 -- popularity 5

140 With !zlAgh !hnu !sthA !zap, the person one wants to know of the action (is the @aim).

834 !R !hrI !vlI !rI !knUy !kSmAy and {A}-enders get /puk before /Ni.

(/vas') (/vas')

vas' "live at"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1165

This root gets stretching by vacisvapi.

Back to special roots .

51 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 610 -- popularity 5

313 (/kvasu optionally replaces /liT) in the /laukika after /sad /vas' /zru.

368 After movement, @objectless, !zliS, /zIG, /sthA, /As, /vas', !jan, !ruh, !jR (/kta optionally [@means the doer]).

1020 (!s) of /zAs /vas' /ghas (to !S after /kric).

(/vyeJ) (/vy)

vye(J) "cover, cover up"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1166

vye vyeJ saMvaraNe 01.1162 is one of the vacisvapi roots.

It is affected by vyazca and vibhASApareH.

It stretches before yaG --

vye + yaG + ante''' svapisyamivyeJAMyaGi vi + yaG + ante''' akRtsArva vI + ya + ante → .. → vevIyante

as in --

avamohanAni vevIyante 'vamohanavikretAraH "dealers hide narcotics very carefully"

215 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 634 -- popularity 4

(/yaj) (/yaj)

yaj "sacrifice"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1167

This root means pouring ghee onto the sacred fire, or more in general, doing any sort of ritual (same meaning as hu "pour, do rituals").

It is traditionally translated as "sacrificing", but it doesn't mean sacrificing in general, only doing religious stuff.

yaj + laT tipyaj + zap + tipyajati "sacrifices"

It stretches by vacisvapi --

yaJ + liT us vacisvapi ij + us liTidhA Ijus "they sacrificed"

ans is affected be vrazcabhrasja --

yaj + kta vacisvapi ij + ta vrazcabhrasja iSta STunA iSTa- "sacrificed"

(Cereful. This iSTa- from yaj sounds like the iSTa- "wanted" from iS.)

Back to special roots .

414 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 640 -- popularity 4

323 (/zatR comes) after !suJ when connection with a sacrifice is meant.

(/stu') (/stu')

stu' "praise"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1168

stu' is lukclass root that ends in u. (Don't confuse with the stu letters.)

stu' + laT tip utovRddhi stauti "he praises"

It especially means to celebrate by chanting or singing in verse. So stotram is stu' + tral.

156 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 660 -- popularity 3

330 {bhrAj-bhAs-dhur dyut-Urj-pRR ju-gravAstu} get /kvip compulsorily.

1145 Special roots.

(/grah) (/gra)

grah "take, grab, accept"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1169

The root grah gRNhAti 09.0071 means "grab, hold in the hand, take, steal".

grah stretches by grahijyA.

Because of graho 'liTi dIrghaH, we say gRhItvA, with long I.

grah plus san makes jighRkSati. See example jighRkSa under rudavida.

The epics sometimes have gRhya for gRhItvA, which is a sin against rule samAse '-naJ-pUrve ktvo lyap.

The kRt enders graha- grAha- and gRha- all come from grah (see vibhASA graheH and [gehe kaH]).

Back to special roots .

348 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 670 -- popularity 10

(/sthA) (/sth)

sthA "stop, stay, stand"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1170

sthA is the root sthA SThA tiSThati 01.1077. Derived from the pie root sta "to stand, make firm, or be firm."

It is subject to several special rules. Here are some, with an example each --

pAghrA -- sthA + zap makes tiSTha

dyatisyatimAsthAmitti kiti -- sthA + kta makes sthita-

ghumA -- sthA + yak makes sthIya

Ato lopa:: iTi ca -- sthA + us makes tasthus, with no A

265 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 690 -- popularity 12

(/sic') (/sic')

sic' "sprinkle"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1171

The root ad 06.0170 sic' Sica~ siJjati means "sprinkle".

There is also a sic affix.

When the object is a new king, sic' means "to consecrate, to anoint", particularly with abhi. Therefore --

sa tadA vAlinaM hatvA sugrIvam abhiSicya ca "he then killed vAlin, and sprinkled sugrIva, and..."

means that he appointed sugrIva king in place of the dead king vAlin.

(The J in siJcati comes from zemucAdInAm.)

Back to special roots .

321 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 700 -- popularity 7

253 !lip /sic' !hve (get /aG)

254 (!lip /sic' !hve get /aG) optionally before [@bent]s.

331 {dA(p)}{-nI-zasa yu-yuja-stu tudasi-}[/sic']{-miha pata-daza-naha} (get /tran) to mean tool.

535 Rootstarter !S to !s.

886 (!R !q) -enders and !dRz to /guNa before /aG /aG'.

1021 /kric won't work on a [@Sa-root] before !San, except !stu and /Ni.

1022 The next rules down to !!parinivibhyaHsevasita work even when /aT is in between.

(/svap) (/svap)

svap 'sleep'mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1172

This is a lukclass root. Like zIG, it may mean either "sleep" or "lie down".

This root is affected by




As in --

svap + laT tip rudAdibhya svap + itipsvapiti "sleeps"

svap + kta vacisvapi supta- "asleep"

It is listed as Jisvapa~ in the dhAtupATha; the JIt shows that Its kta may mean present time, as in --

na hi suptasya siMhasya pravizanti mukhe mRgAH "deer don't go into the mouth of a sleeping lion"

305 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 721 -- popularity 12

(/vah) (/vah)

vah vahati "carries, conveys"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1173

This root gets stretching by vacisvapi.

It is mentioned at rule etyedhatyUThsu.

The rootnoun, vah-, means of course carrier, and may mean also "driver", "dragger", "puller". As in anaDuh- "cart-puller, ox".

The kta is UDha-, formed this way --

vah + kta vacisvapi uh + ta hoDhaH uDh + ta jhaSastatho uDh + dha STunA uDh + Dha DhoDhe u + Dha Dhralope UDha- "carried"

222 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 741 -- popularity 6

306 /vah (gets /Nvi in the /veda).

609 !a !A of !sah !vah to !o (before disappeared !Dh).

1205 special nounbases

(/vap) (/vap)

vap "sow, scatter"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1174

vap is one of the vacisvapi roots --

vap + kta vacisvapi upta- "was sown"

It gets Nyat --

vap + Nyat Asuyuvapi vApya- "to be sown"

74 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 761 -- popularity 5

340 {Dvit}s get {(k)tri}

456 {(k)tri} gets {ma(p)}.

1145 Special roots.

(/yu) (/yu)

yu "join, mix"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1175

This is yu yauti mizrANe 02.0027. Mostly same meaning as yuj.

Affected by Asuyuvapi --

yu + Nyat Asuyuvapi yAvya-

74 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 774 -- popularity 2

1145 Special roots.

(/yuj) (/yuj)

yuj "join"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1176

yuj is the root yuj yuj(ir) yunakti 07.0007 "join, bind, yoke, restrain". From pie yeug.

It is a very regular znamclass roots, and it is flattybendy. I just mention it here because it is very common in grammar examples.

Its kvin, yuj-, is anomalous because it can be used uncompounded (see yujerasamAse).

230 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 783 -- popularity 1

1175 /yu "join, mix"

(/zAs) (/zA)

zAs "instruct"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1177

The lukclass root zAs "instruct" may mean to give instruction ('teach') or instructions ('command'), or also to wish or pray.

zAs + laT tipzAsti "teaches"

AG + zAs + laT taAzAste "wishes, prays"

Some times it changes into zis by zAsa_ida --

zAs + laT tas zAsa::idaGhaloH zis + tas zAsivasi ziS + tas STunA ziSTas "both teach"

And the plural does not have anti''', because rule jakSi says so --

zAs + laT jhi adabhyastAt zAsati "they teach"

Back to special roots .

310 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 794 -- popularity 3

(/Rcch) (/Rc)

Rcch Rcchati "go"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1178

The zaclass root ad 06.0016 Rcch Rch is affected by --



It means "rise, attack, hurt, move", or maybe gat%Indriyapralaya-mUrtibhAveSu "to go, to become weak, to lose power of senses, to harden".

Back to special roots .

175 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 814 -- popularity 4

105 After /sam, roots /gam /Rcch /pracch !svar !R !zru !vid /dRz (get @bent if @objectless).

(/UrNu) (/Ur)

UrNu "cover, hide"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1179

Urnu(J) is the root 02.0034 UrNu UrnuJ UrNoti UrNauti UrNute AcchAdane seT "hide, cover". The J label is for svaritaJi. The n always becomes N eventually by kric.

UrNu is affected by several special rules, such as --

UrNoter vibhASA

UrNoter vibhASA x


Back to special roots .

Notice that the root is listed in the dhAtupATha as Urnu, but we call it informally UrNu, which is easier to say. The root must be Urnu so that the liT is UrNunAva --

Urnu + NalUrnau + a (acoJNiti nandrA Ur + nau + nau + a hrasvaH Ur + nu + nau + a ecoya UrnunAva Natvam UrNunAva "he hid"

With UrNu as root we would have gotten UrNuNAva.

442 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 820 -- popularity 6

242 Roots that start with a @heavy /ic get /Am'' (before /liT), except /Rcch and /UrNu.

590 /Jit is what has label !J

856 Replace last !u of a @lukclass with !au before consonant (/pit @hard).

1378 Which roots get /Am''

(/dA) (/dA)

dA "give", dhA "put"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1180

These are the most common ghu roots.

They are affected by some special rules --

datta- "given" -- dodadghoH

dehi "give!" -- ghvasoreddhA

dattas "both give" -- dadhastathozca

dIyate "is given" -- ghumA

There is also an affix dhA' meaning "-fold".

Back to special roots .

198 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 876 -- popularity 7

290 !zyA {A}-enders !vyadh, !Asr !saMsr !atIN, avasA !avahR !liha, !zliSa !zvas (get /Na optionally)

645 No (!!ghumAsthA) before /lyap.

834 !R !hrI !vlI !rI !knUy !kSmAy and {A}-enders get /puk before /Ni.

898 !dhA to !hi (before /kit !t)

900 After a @vowel @preverb, (replace !dA of a /ghu) with !t (before /kit !t).

1268 /seT /aniT /veT

1662 /laT of /dA and /dhA

(/arti) (/art)

arti "go"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1181

The arti in the rules artipipa and guNortisa is the zluclass root ad 03.0017 R sR gatau "go, get, get to".

With laT tip, this root makes iyarti "reaches" (see artipipartyozca).

With yak ta, it makes aryate "is reached" (see guNortisa).

Back to special roots .

189 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 890 -- popularity 2

(/brU) (/br)

brU "say"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1182

The lukclass root brU "say" is only used before hard affixes (see bruvovaciH).

Its tiG may get IT --

brU + laT tipbro + ti bruva::IT bro + Iti ecoya bravIti "says"

According to pANini, we should have --

brU + laG mipbrU + am''' luGlaG abrU + am hardsoft abro + am ecoya abravam "I said"

but in the epics you'll hear abruvam for abravam --

saubharAjam upetyAham abruvanM durvacaM vacaH

Back to special roots .

Back to roots for "say" .

291 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 900 -- popularity 7

378 /brU to /Ah optionally before the first five.

727 Optionally /tu''' and /hi''' to /tAtaG when wishing.

958 /Ah to !th (before serious).

(/hu) (/hu)

hu "pour"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1183

The root hu means in particular "pour ghee onto the holy fire", and more in general "perform rites".

So it has the same meanings as yaj. (I tend to gloss the first as "pour" and the second as "sacrifice", but that's just to keep my indexes clean, the meaning is the same.)

hu is found very often in grammar examples, because it is the first of the zluclass (a.k.a. juhotyAdi) roots. It is affected by the special rules --



Back to special roots .

358 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 936 -- popularity 5

614 (Lengthen rootfinal @stretched !a !i !u,) after consonant.

(/vad) (/vad)

Roots for "say".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1184

All of the following roots all can mean "speak, talk, say, tell, chat" and so on --

vac -- affected by vacisvapi

vac + laT tip coHkuH vakti "speaks"

vac is aniT --

vac + kta vacisvapi ukta- "(it) was said, (he) was told"

vac + yak + laT tavac + yak + te''' vacisvapi ucyate "is said"

vad -- affected by vacisvapi

vad + laT tipvad + zap + tipvadati "speaks"

vad + kta ArdhadhAtukasyeD vad + ita vacisvapi udita- "(it) was said, (he) was told"

vad + yak + laT tavad + yak + te''' vacisvapi udyate "is said"

brU (and its replacement Ah)

bhAS bhASate

lap lapati

IMPORTANT. In English we have several verbs like "say", "tell", "speak" that are used in different ways. For instance, we can say "I told him so", but we cannot say "I said him so"; we can say "I told him the answer" but we cannot say "I spoke him the answer", we can say "he speaks German", but "he says German" is no good.

In Sanskrit it's different. All the roots mentioned above ( vac vad brU bhAS etc) can mean any of "say", "tell", "speak", etc, and all can be used in the same way. With the exception that lap often means "babble, talk nonsense, chatter". They all can take two objects, one expressing the thing said, and the other of the person adressed. So both of uttaram uktam "the answer was said" and rAma uktaH "rAma was spoken to" are correct.

Back to special roots .

914 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 978 -- popularity 9

202 /veJ to !vay (optionally before /liT).

211 /brU to /vac (before @soft).

252 After /asyati !vac !khyA. (/cli to) /aG (before /kartari).

277 (@Latter [@preverb]-less) /bhU, when meaning state, gets (/kyap) only.

300 /vad gets /khac after !priya or !vaza

927 !a of an /akit (@stammer) to @long (before /yaG or /yaGluk)

1420 root changes before /yak and @soft /liG

(/kR) (/kR)

kR means "do, make"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1185

The very common root (Du)kR(J) "make, do" is also known as kR or kRJ. The J label makes svaritaJi work. The Du label allows DvitaHktriH to make kRtrima-.

akarot "he did it"

kumbham karomi "I'm making a pot"

It is a flattybendy root --

akuruta "he did it"

kumbham kurve "I'm making a pot"

It is one of the auxiliary roots.

It is affected by the special rules --




See also kR with u .

Back to special roots .

346 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1033 -- popularity 50

(/karu) (/karu)

kR with ummmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1186

The root kR "do, make" , when before a hard doer affix, gets u by tanAdikRJbhya::uH. This kR with u then turns into --

karo before aGit,

kuru before Git, and

kur before Git that starts with v m y.

Examples of karo before aGit --

kR + laT tipkR + u + tip hardsoft karu + tip hardsoft karoti "makes"

kR + laG tip → .. → akaro + am''' ecoya akaravam "I made"

Examples of kuru before Git that does not start with v m y --

kR + laT jhikaru + jhi ( like above ) ata::ut kuru + jhikuru + anti''' ikoyaNaci kurvanti "they make"

kR + laT taskaru + taskuru + taskurutas "both make"

kR + laG jhakaru + jhakuru + jha luGlaG akuru + jhaakuru + ata''' ikoyaNaci akurvata "they made"

(Here jhi tas jha are Git because hard apit is Git .)

Example of kur before Git that starts with m --

kR + laT maskuru + mas ( like above ) nityaMkaroteH kurmas "we make"

Example of kur before Git that starts with y --

kR + @hard liG tipkuru + tip ( like above ) → kuru + yAt''' yeca kuryAt "he would make"

Back to special roots .

649 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1050 -- popularity 4

(/bhU) (/bhU)

bhU "be there, be"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1187

The very common bhU means "become, be, be there". Same meaning as asti.

As in --

sarveSAM sukhamM bhavatu "may all be happy"

It is one of the auxiliary roots.

See also --

asterbhUH -- replace as with bhU before soft

AtaH -- the luG has abhUvan "they were", not abhUvus as expected.

bhuvovugluGliToH -- bhU gets v added in the luG and liT

bhavateraH -- the liT is babhUva, not bubhUva

Back to special roots .

303 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1125 -- popularity 32

(/sad) (/sad)

sad "sit"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1188

Thew root sad (aka SadL~) means "sit" or "be stopped, be motionless".

Its laT is sIdati, by pAghrA

71 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1140 -- popularity 3

313 (/kvasu optionally replaces /liT) in the /laukika after /sad /vas' /zru.

965 After !r !d, /niSThA to !n, and the !d too.

1019 (/kric works only) when a @Sa-root or an @affix is involved.

(/dRz) (/dR)

dRz "see"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1189

This root is extremely common. Translate as "see", "perceive", "understand", or "look at".

Before zap, dRz is affected by pAghrA --

dRz + laT tip pAghrA pazya + zap + tip atoguNe pazyati "sees"

But it is not so affected before other affixes --

dRz + karmaNi laT ta sArvadhAtukeyak dRz + yak + ta Tita dRzyate "is being seen"

In the inria conjugation gadget, the "active" of the first four tenses of dRz is wrong. All of those must get pAghrA, and so does the zatR, which is pazyat- not darzat-.

Back to special roots .

352 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1150 -- popularity 21

(/dviS) (/dviS)

dviS "hate"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1190

This is the lukclass root 02.0003 "hate". It is not particularly special, but it is very common, and also flattybendy. So, I use it a lot in grammar examples.

117 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1178 -- popularity 6

793 !yA (of @hard /yAsuT) to !iy after !a, .

1145 Special roots.

1268 /seT /aniT /veT

1347 ta ta synchretism

1416 Rule [!!sthAnivad Adezo] does not work for letter-rules.

(/iS) (/iS)

iS "want"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1191

The root iS icchati 06.0078 "want" turns into icch before za --

iS + laT tipiS + za + ti iSugami ichati checa icchati "wants"

But stays iS elsewhere --

iS + kta STunA iSTa- "wanted"

There is another iSTa- that means "sacrificed" (from root yaj, with stretching by vacisvapi).

Back to special roots .

200 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1180 -- popularity 5

242 Roots that start with a @heavy /ic get /Am'' (before /liT), except /Rcch and /UrNu.

558 @Merge {A(T)} (with /ik into /vRddhi).

(/vid) (/vid)

vid "know"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1192

There are several vid roots. The most common one means "know", is a lukclass, and is affected by -



Back to special roots .

113 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1203 -- popularity 5

244 !uS /vid /jAgR (get /Am'') optionally.

728 After /vid, /zatR to {vas(u)} optionally.

(acdisambiguation) (acd)

ac disambiguationmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1193

There are four sorts of ac --

ac means "vowel",

as used in rule iko yaN aci ik to yaN before ac

ac' is a taddhita,

arcas- + ac'arcasa- "piley"

ac'' is a kRt --

pac + ac''paca "cook"

ac''' is a rootnoun from aJcu --

pra + ac'''prAc- "eastern"

170 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1213 -- popularity 4

(/zIG) (/zIG)

zIG "lie down, sleep"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1194

This is root ad 02.0026 zI zIG zete svapne seT "lie down, sleep"

The G is a label. This G makes the root bendy, by anudAtta;G-ita. It also tells it apart from the affix zI.

zIG is affected by


zIGas sArvadhAtuke guNaH


177 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1241 -- popularity 11

(/gam) (/gam)

gam "go"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1195

The root gam gamL~ gatau 01.1137 means "to go". It is aniT.

gam is objectful when it means "go to a place", and its object is the destination.

gam is objectless when it means "leave"

Both gata- and the rootnoun ga- are often used as a latter to mean "that is at". As in --

sarvatra-ga- "that is everywhere, ubiquitous"

citra-gatA narI "the woman in the picture"

gam (or any other root meaning "go" or "approach") may also mean "know" in the biblical sense, as in "and Adam knew Eve his wife". In that sense it often has upa or abhi "near" --

sA tvayA n%opagantavyA zUdrAtvAd eva mAriSa "You must never go near her, as she's a zudrA and you're respectable."

gam is affected by some special rules like

iSugami -- gam to gacch before zap

gamahana -- gam loses a before kGit

anudAttopadeza -- gam to ga before serious kGit

609 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1250 -- popularity 16

(/pA) (/pA)

pAti "protects" pibati "drinks".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1196

There are two pA roots --

[1] pA aka pibati "drinks" zapclass --

pA + laT tip pAghrA piba + zap + tip atoguNe pibati "drinks"

[2] pA' aka pAti "protects, rules" lukclass --

pA' + laT tip adiprabhR pAti "protects"

125 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1306 -- popularity 3

350 (Replace /khal with) /yuc after !A.

370 After staying, moving and consuming, /kta can mean the @location too.

1145 Special roots.

(/iN') (/iN')

iN' "go"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1197

i(N)' eti gatau 02.0040 means "go".

Not same as bendy iG adhIte adhyayAne 02.0041, that means "recite, study".

Examples --

i + laT jhii + anti''' iNoyaN ya + anti'''yanti "they go"

i + laT tip hardsoft eti "goes"

i + laT mip hardsoft emi "I go"

as in

avaimi c/AhanM nRpate na tvamM mAnM tyaktum arhasi "And I understand, your majesty, that you shouldn't abandon me."

The liT is iyAya Iyatus Iyus "wen" (see dIrgha:: iNaH kiti)

There is also a yAnti that means "they go". It comes from root yA 02.0044, not from iN'.

340 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1342 -- popularity 14

(/iG) (/iG)

iG of adhi + i "study"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1198

adhi + i(G) means "recite". We can translate it as "study", as the old Indian's idea of studying was reciting the veda again and again until it stuck to memory. This i(G) root is bendy (by anudAtta;Gita) --

adhi + iG + laT taadhi + i + te''' akassa adhIte "recites"

There is another root, iN', that means "go" and is flatty, and sometimes takes adhi.

ad numbers --

02.0041 i iG adhIte adhyayane 02.0041 "recite, study"

02.0040 i iN' eti gatau "go".

304 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1368 -- popularity 8

67 After /gAG and /kuTAdi what is not /JNit is /Git.

207 /iG too to ({gam(i)} before /san)

208 (/iG to) /gAG before /liT.

209 (/iG to /gAG) optionally before /luG /lRG.

541 @Short gets /tuk before /pit /kRt.

554 /kric /tuk rules ignore the effect of @merge rules.

626 ([/iT]-less) /san lengthens vowel-enders and !han !gam.

(/zru) (/zru)

zru "hear, listen"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1199

zru 01.1092 is a znuclass root.

Some quirks --

zru plus znu add up to zRNu (see zruvaH zR ca).

zru plus san

makes zuzrUSa, that means "obey" (in addition to its meaning "want to hear")

and gets bent endings by jJAzru.

liT after zru

does not get iT, by kRsR

186 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1418 -- popularity 10

(/plu) (/plu)

plu means "jump, float, swim, sail".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1200

The root ad 01.1112 plu pluG gatau is not very special, but I list it here anyway because I use it a lot in the examples.

I use it a lot in the examples because it is a zapclass bendy root that is not very special.

It is bendy because it is Git, see anudAttaGi.

195 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1432 -- popularity 7

152 /tiG, taken by threes, are [@third person], [@second person], [@first person]

232 /yaG after verbs of going only means "crookedly".

368 After movement, @objectless, !zliS, /zIG, /sthA, /As, /vas', !jan, !ruh, !jR (/kta optionally [@means the doer]).

626 ([/iT]-less) /san lengthens vowel-enders and !han !gam.

650 !yu [@root]s, /znu, /bhrU- to {iy(aG)} {uv(aG)} before @vowel.

1145 Special roots.

1565 examples of reduplication before /san

(/han) (/han)

han means "kill".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1201

The root han hana~ hanti hiMsA-gatyoH 02.0002 means "kill, hit, attack".

It is affected by many special rules, such as

gamahana and hohante -- han to ghn before vowel Git

han + anti''' gamahana hnanti hohante ghnanti "they kill"

anudAttopa -- han loses n before serious kGit

han + tashatas "both kill"

hanovadha -- han to vadha before soft liG

luGica -- han to vadha before luG

hanterjaH -- "kill!" is jahi

See also rootnoun han- .

See also han before tiG .

325 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1446 -- popularity 25

(hanbeforetiG) (han)

han before tiGmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1202

Because of several rules, the root han --

turns into ha before serious Git --

han + laT tas anudAtto hatas "the two of you kill"

turns into ghn before other Git --

han + laT jhihan + anti''' gamahana hn + anti hohante ghnanti "they kill"

and stays before non- Git --

han + laT tip nazcA haMti anusvA hanti "he kills"

han + laT siphansi nazcA haMsi "you kill"

han + laT miphanmi "I kill"

han + laG mip luGlaG ahan + mipahan + am'''ahanam "I killed"

han + laG sip → .. → ahan + s''' halGyA ahan "you killed"

han + laG tip → .. → ahan + t''' halGyA ahan "he killed"

See inria verb table for han for more examples.

445 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1470 -- popularity 2

75 After /han, /sic (is /kit before @bent).

(/han-) (/han-)

rootnoun han-mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1203

The nounbase han- (from root han) means "killer". It can be used only as a latter after its object. It is affected by several special rules --

By anudAttopadeza, it sometimes loses n.

By inhan, it does not get rAjAnam before au jas am.

By alloponaH, the a is lost when han is wimpy.

By ho hanter JNin;neSu the h becomes gh when han- is wimpy or before JNit affixes.

By ekAj uttara-pade NaH, the n can gets Natvam if it's nnot wimpy.

329 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1492 -- popularity 5

278 (To mean a state, /kyap comes) after /han-, and replace /han with !t.

1145 Special roots.

(/veJ) (/veJ)

ve(J) "weave"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1204

Root ve veJ vayati 01.1161 tantusantAne "weave, sew, knit". There is a root Uy Uyate 01.0556 with the same meaning, tantusantAne.

Like English "weave", these veJ Uy also have the figurative meaning "devise, contrive, arrange, compose", as in "he wove a tale". There is also a root siv sIvyati 04.0002 that only means "weave, sew".

veJ is affected by --


ve + sya + tip Adeca_u vAsyati "he will weave"


vA + yak + te''' vacisvapi u + ya + te''' akRtsArva Uyate "it is being woven"



It is an exception to halaH.

uta- "woven"

373 letters. -- 9710specialroots.bse 1524 -- popularity 8

202 /veJ to !vay (optionally before /liT).

295 /hveJ /veJ /mAG' (get /aN' when @latter after their @object)

526 The !y of !vai (does not @stretch).

1145 Special roots.

the tiG groups ←

chunk 59: special roots

→ special nounbases