more definitions ←

chunk 67: doer verbs and nondoer verbs

→ means doer means object means nothing

doer verbs
nondoer verbs
Doer verbs and nondoer verbs from objectful roots




 

doer verbsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1292

We can make doer verbs and nondoer verbs from all roots and all tenses.

A doer verb, is a verb that means the doer, is a verb that changes its ending depending on the doer of its action. So these carati caratas caranti are doer verbs --

azvaz carati "horse walks"

azvau carataH "two horses walk"

azvAz caranti "horses walk"

We also say that the endings tip tas jhi of these verbs mean the doer.

and these dRzyate dRzyate dRzyate are not doer verbs --

dRzyate gajo mayA "I see elephant"

dRzyate gajo kapibhyAm "two monkeys see elephant"

dRzyate gajo kapibhiH "monkeys see elephant"

In fact these three dRzyate are nondoer verbs.

Doer verbs never have yak inside, but some have zyan, that may look like yak --

zakunir dIyate "bird flies"

zakunI dIyete "two birds fly"

zakunayo dIyante "birds fly"




 

nondoer verbsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1293

A nondoer verb is a verb that does not change its ending depending on who is the doer of its action. For instance, this supyate here --

supyate siMhena "lion sleeps"

supyate mayA "I sleep"

supyate taiH "they sleep"

There are two sorts of nondoer verbs. The ones from objectless roots, such as supyate, always take ta ending. The ones from objectful roots, such a dRzyate, mean the object, that is to say, they change their ending depending on the object of the root --

dRzyate siMho mayA "I see a lion"

dRzyete siMhau mayA "I see two lions"

mayA dRzyante siMhAH "I see lions"

Nondoer verbs always take yak --

svap + laT ta sArvadhAtukeyak svap + yak + ta vacisvapi sup + ya + tasupya + te'''supyate "sleeping is ongoing"

dRz + laT ta sArvadhAtukeyak dRz + yak + tadRz + ya + te'''dRyzate "it is being seen"




 

Doer verbs and nondoer verbs from objectful rootsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1294

All verb roots can be used in doer style or in nondoer style. The doer verbs show by their ending the number and person of their doer, and the nondoer verbs don't do that.

If the nondoer verb is objectful, it will show with its ending the number and person of its object.

Example. The root zru, is objectful, and its object is whatever one hears. When we use it in the doer style, the verb ending tip tas jhi shows how many doers (hearers) are there --

zRNoti siMhaH kapim "lion hears monkey"

zRNutasH siMhau kapim "two lion hear monkey"

zRNvanti siMhAH kapim "lions hear monkey"

However, when we use the same root in the nondoer style, the verb ending ta AtAm jha does not show how many lions hear, but rather it shows how many monkeys are heard --

zrUyate siMhena kapiH "lion hears monkey"

zrUyete siMhena kapI "lion hears two monkeys"

zrUyante siMhena kapayaH "lion hears monkeys"

Notice that the verb does not show how many pursuers are there. If more lions pursue monkeys, the verb is still the same, zrUyante "two are being heard" --

zrUyante siMhAbhyAGM kapayaH "two lions hear monkeys"

zrUyante siMhaiH kapayaH "lions hear monkeys"
















more definitions ←

chunk 67: doer verbs and nondoer verbs

→ means doer means object means nothing