74070 changes in stammers, word repetition ←

chunk 46: 82001 tripAdI

→ 82039 changes before serious, /niSThA to !n

82001 From this point on, rules cantgoback. pUrvatrAsiddham
82007 Nounbasefinal n to lopa. nalopaHprAtipadikAntasya
82008 But not before calling. naGisambuddhyoH
82009 matup to vatup after nexttolast or last m a A. Unless after yava etc. mAdupadhAyAzcamatorvoyavAdibhyaH
82010 after a stop. jhayaH
82023 Chop wordfinal cluster. saMyogAntasyalopaH
82024 But after r, delete s only. rAtsasya
82025 before dh. dhica
82026 after serious before serious. jhalojhali
82027 iT-less after short . hrasvAdaGgAt
82028 iSic disappears before It''' Is'''. iTaITi
82029 Delete s k that start a cluster that is or is wordfinal. skossaMyogAdyoranteca
82030 cu to ku. coHkuH
82031 h to Dh. hoDhaH
82032 d-starter h-ender root to gh . dAderdhAtorghaH
82033 Optionally druh muh SNuh SNih to . vAdruhamuhaSNuhaSNihAm
82034 nah to dh . nahodhaH
82035 Ah to th . AhasthaH
82036 ch z vrazc bhrasj sRj mRj yaj rAj bhrAj to S . vrazcabhrasjasRjamRjayajarAjabhrAjacchazAMSaH
82037 baz of ekAc jhaS-ender root to bhaS when wordfinal or before s dhv. ekAcobazobhaSjhaSantasyasdhvoH
82038 dadh to before t th s dh. dadhastathozca




(pUrvatrAsi) (@cant)

pUrvatr/Asiddham ONPANINI 82001
From this point on, rules cantgoback.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 951

This is a talkaround. It means --

"The changes made by the following rules do not trigger earlier rules".

Example 1.

* When joining dvau + atra "there are two here", rule ecoya replaces au with Av, then rule lopazzA turns av into a, making dvA atra.

* Now, it might look like akassa should work.

* But it can't work, because rule 83019 lopazzA is after this one, and 61101 akassa is before 83019 lopazzA. So dvAtra sux, we must say dvA_atra or dvAvatra.

Example 2.

* The rules that are before 82001 turn hanumant- + su into hanumAnts first, then into hAnumant (by halGyA).

* Now, rule 82007 nalopaHprA cannot work on hanumAnt, but 82023 saMyogAnta does work, making hanumAn.

* At this point hanumAn ends in n, so it looks like nalopaHprA should work. But it won't, because 82007 nalopaHprA is before 82023 saMyogAnta.

The rules below this one, that is, chapters 8.2, 8.3 and 8.4, are called the tripAdI "the three chapters at the end". Sometimes I call them the " assembly line", because they work in order.

KAZIKA pUrvatra asiddham ityadhikAro 'yam A adhyAyaparisamApteH. yadita Urdhvam anukramiSyAmaH pUrvatra asiddham ityevaM tad veditavyam. tatra yeyaM sapAdasaptAdhyAyI anukrAntA, etasyAm ayaM pAdono 'dhyAyo 'siddho bhavati. ita uttaraM ca uttara uttaro yogaH pUrvatra pUrvatra asiddho bhavati asiddhavad bhavati. siddhakAryam na karoti ityarthaH. tadetadasiddhatvavacanam AdezalakSaNapratiSedhArtham, utsargalakSaNabhAvArthaM ca. asmA uddhara, dvA atra, dvA Anaya, asA AdityaH ityatra vyalopasya zasiddhatvAt, Ad guNaH iti, akaH savarNe dIrghaH iti ca na bhavati. amuSmai, amuSmAt, amuSminiti utvasya asiddhatvAt smAyAdayo bhavanti. zuSkikA zuSkajaGghA ca kSAmimAnaujaDhattathA. matorvattve jhalAM jaztve guDaliNmAn nidarzanam. zuSkikA ityatra zuSaH kaH 82051 ityasya asiddhatvAdudIcAmAtaH sthAne yakapUrvAyAH 73046 ityetan na bhavati. zuSkajaGghA iti na kopadhAyAH 63037 iti puMvadbhAvapratiSedho na bhavati. kSAmimAniti kSAmasya apatyaM kSAmiH, kSAmo vA asya asti iti kSAmI, kSAmiH kSAmI vA yasya asti iti kSAmimAn. kSAyo maH ityasya asiddhatvAn mAdupadhAyAzca iti vatvaM na bhavati. aujaDhatiti vaherniSThAyAmUDhaH, tamAkhyatiti Nic, tadantAl luG, caGi iti dvirvacane kartavye DhatvadhatvaSTutvaDhalopAnAm asiddhatvAN Nau ca yaH TilopaH, tasya sthAnivadbhAvAt tha ityetad dvirucyate. anaglope iti pratiSedhAt sanvadittvaM na asti, tena aujaDhatiti bhavati. aujiDhatityetat tu ktinnantasya uDhizabdasya bhavati. guDaliNmAniti guDaliho 'sya santi iti matup, tatra DhatvajaztvayorasiddhatvAt jhayaH iti vatvaM na bhavati. ye 'tra SaSthInirdezAH, saptamInirdezAH, paJcamInirdezAzca, teSAM SaSThI sthAneyogA, tasminniti nirdiSTe pUrvasya, tasmAdityuttarasya iti ca kartavye na asiddhatva bhavati, kAryakAlaM hi saMjJAparibhASam iti pUrvatvamAsAM paribhASANAM na asti iti. vipratiSedhe param ityeSA ca paribhASA yena pUrveNa lakSaNena saha spardhate, paraM lakSaNaM tatprati tasya asiddhatvAn na pravartate. tathA ca visphoryam, agoryam iti guNaH pareNa hali ca iti dIrgha-tvena na bAdhyate. apavAdasya tu parasya api utsarge kartavye vacanaprAmaNyAdasiddhatvaM na bhavati. tena dogdhA, dogdhum ityatra ghatvasya asiddhatvAd ho DhaH iti na bhavati.

The name of this rule is pUrvatrAsiddham , but in the classroom we ended up calling it "the cantgoback rule".

The literal translation of purvatra asiddham is "unaccomplished with respect to previous". How come that ends up meaning "the changes made by the following rules will not affect the previous rules"?

* This rule is a headline that affects all rules from here down to the end of the grammar, at a_a.

* The word asiddham, "unaccomplished", means that the changes made by those rules have to be considered null and void from the viewpoint of any previous rules.

* Therefore, when 82023 saMyogAnta turns hanumAnt into hanumAn, then rule 82007 nalopaHprA, which is before saMyogAnta, does not notice that the t has disappeared, and does not work.

* But rule 83007 nazchavya is after saMyogAnta, so that one will notice that the t has disappeared, and will work, making hanumAMs tiSThati.

1414 letters. -- 82.bse 10 -- popularity 6

582 After !a, /ru to !u (before !a).

775 !vad !vraj and [/hal]-enders to (/vRddhi before /sic that is before @flat).

1002 Delete !Dh before !Dh.

1314 /iSan is /san with /iT.




(nalopaHprA) (!nalopa)

na-lopaH prAtipadik%Antasya ONPANINI 82007
Nounbasefinal ( wordfinal) n to lopa.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 952

Example 1.

rAjan- is a nounbase, and when we add su after it we get rAjAns.

This rAjAns is a word, and the rAjAn part inside it is a nounbase.

So this n of rAjAns is at the end of a nounbase, but not at the end of a word.

Now, when rule halGyA deletes the s, we get rAjAn, which is both a word and a nounbase.

So the n is now both wordfinal and nounbasefinal.

Then nalopaHprA deletes it, and we say rAjA.

Example 2.

The two words rAjJaH puruSaH "man of the king" can be made into a compound that means "king's officer, policeman".

rAjJas is built from rAjan- + Gas. The rAjan- nounbase is not a word, but after we add Gas, the resulting rAjJas is a word by rule suptiG.

Rule supodhA teaches that when we form the compound, and put rAjJAs in front of puRuSas, rAjJas loses its Gas by luk, and becomes rAjan again. This rAjan is still a word because rule nalumatAGgasya says so.

Therefore now the n of rAjan is both nounbasefinal and wordfinal.

So this rule nalopaHprA deletes the n, and we say rAjapuruSaH.

KAZIKA padasya iti vartate. prAtipadikasya padasya yo 'ntyo nakAraH tasya lopo bhavati. rAjA. rAjabhyAm. rAjabhiH. rAjatA. rAjataraH. rAjatamaH. prAtipadikagrahaNaM kim? ahannahim. antagrahaNaM kim? rAjAnau. rAjAnaH. prAtipadikagrahaNam asamastam eva supAM sulukiti SaSThyA lukA nirdiSTam. ahno nalopapratiSedho vaktavyaH. ahaH. ahobhyAm. ahobhiH. ro 'supi, ahan iti repharutvayorasiddhatvAt nalopaH prApnoti, sAvakAzaM tadubhayaM sambuddhau, he 'haH, he dIrghAto nidAgheti? tatra samAdhimAhuH. ahaniti ruvidhau yadupAdIyate prathamaikavacanAntam akRtanalopaM tadAvartyate, tatra ekayA AvRttyA tadevaM rUpaM nalopAbhAvArtham anvAkhyAyate, dvitIyayApi tasya ruH vidhIyate.

773 letters. -- 82.bse 288 -- popularity 34




(naGisambu) (!naG)

na Gi;saMbuddhyoH ONPANINI 82008
But not before calling.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 953

Exception to nalopaHprA above -- the wordfinal nounbasefinal n does stay if it was before calling.

Examples --

rAjan- + @calling su halGyA rAjan- + loparAjan "hey king"

yogin- + @callingyogin "hey yogi"

KAZIKA Gau parataH sambuddhau ca nakAra-lopo na bhavati. Ardre carman. lohite carman. supAM lukiti Gerluk. sambuddhau he rAjan. he takSan. etasmAd eva nalopapratiSedhavacanAtapratyayaH iti pratyayalakSaNena prAtipadikasaMjJA na pratiSidhyate iti jJApyate, bhasaMjJA ca na bhavati iti. tathA ca rAjJaH puruSaH rAjapuruSaH ityatra nalopazca bhavati, allopazca na bhavati. GAvuttarapade pratiSedhasya pratiSedho vaktavyaH. carmaNi tilA asya carmatilaH. he rAjan vRndAraka ityatra samudAyArthasambodhanam, na pUrvapadArthasambodhanaM pratIyate iti sambuddhyantaM pUrvapadaM na eva samasyate. vA napuMsakAnAm iti vaktavyam. he carman, he carma.

The Gi in the original rule is a vedic affix, not our super-common Gi. Just ignore it.

213 letters. -- 82.bse 312 -- popularity 4

626 (@Nexttolast of !n @stem lengthens) before @strong that is not the @calling.

749 (@neuter) !i !u (gets /num) before @vowel /vibhakti.

763 /pums- to !pumas- (before @strong).

768 Replace {R}-enders, !uzanas-, !purudaMsas- and !anehas- (with !an before non-@calling /su).




(mAdupadhA) (/vatu)

m;Ad upadhAyAz ca mator vo 'yavAdibhyaH ONPANINI 82009
matup to vatup after nexttolast or last m a A. Unless after yava etc.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 954

Examples with (a, m, A)-enders --

vRkSAs + matup → * vRkSavat- "treed"

mAlA + matup → * mAlAvat- "garlanded"

kim + matup → * kiMvat- "having what?"

Examples with nexttolast a --

yazas + matup → * yazasvat- "good-famed"

saras + matup → * sarasvat- "many-laked"

Counterexamples with no m a A --

gomat- "that has cattle"

See also exception tasauma.

See also jhayaH.

KAZIKA matoH iha kAryitvena upAdAnAt sAmarthyalabdhaM prAtipadikaM tat mAtiti makArAvarNAbhyAM viziSyate. makArAvarNaviziSTayA ca upadhayA ityayam artho bhavati. makArAntAt makAropadhAtavarNAntAdavarNopadhAt ca uttarasya matoH vaH ityayam Adezo bhavati, yavAdibhyas tu parato na bhavati. makArAntAt tAvat kiMvAn. zaMvAn. makAropadhAt zamIvAn. dADimIvAn. avarNAntAt vRkSavAn. plakSavAn. khaTvAvAn. mAlAvAn. avarNopadhAt payasvAn. yazasvAn. bhAsvAn. mAdupadhAyAzca iti kim? agnimAt. vAyumAn. ayavAdibhyaH iti kim? yavamAn. dalmimAn. UrmimAn. yava. dalmi. Urmi. bhUmi. kRmi. kruJcA. vazA. drAkSA. eteSAM mAdupadhAyAzca. iti prApnoti. dhraji, dhvaji, saJji ityeteSAM chandasIraH 82015 iti. harit, kakut, garutityeteSAM jhayaH 82010 iti. ikSu, madhu, druma, maNDa, dhUma ityeteSAM saMjJAyAm 82011 iti. AkRtigaNazca yavAdiH. akRtavattvo matub yavAdiSu draSTavyaH. yasya sati nimitte matupo vattvaM na dRzyate sa yavAdiSu draSTavyaH iha nRmataH idaM nArmatam iti bahiraGgalakSaNatvAtavarNopadhasya matupo vattvaM na bhavati.

The word yavAdibhyaH "unless after yava etc" means --

" If you come across exceptions to this rule, such as

yavamat- "that has barley"

in serious ancient writers, they are fine. Just don't make your own exceptions, okay? "

419 letters. -- 82.bse 342 -- popularity 12




(jhayaH) (!jhaya)

jhayaH ONPANINI 82010
( matup to vatup) after a stop.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 955

Addition to mAdupa above.

Examples:

vidyut- + matup → * vidyutvat- "that has lightning"

megho vidyutvAn "the cloud has (lots of) lightning"

marutvat- "that has maruts"

marutvAn indraH " indra lord of the winds"

dRSadvat- "that has (many) rocks"

dRSadvantaH parvatAH "the Rocky Mountains"

dRSadvantaH "the Rockies"

This rule has random exceptions, like --

garutmat- "that has wings"

KAZIKA jhayantAd uttarasya matoH vaH ity ayam Adezo bhavati. agnicitvAn grAmaH. vidyutvAn balAhakaH. indro marutvAn. dRSadvAn dezaH.

291 letters. -- 82.bse 391 -- popularity 2

951 From this point on, rules @cantgoback.




(saMyogAnta) (!saMy)

saMyog%Antasya lopaH ONPANINI 82023
chop wordfinal cluster.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 956

As in --

nRt + laG jhinRt + zyan + jhinRt + zyan + ant''' luGlaG anRtyant → * anRtyan "they danced"

( nalopaHprA did not chop the n because of cantgoback )

hanumat(up)- + su atvasa hanumAts ugidacA hanumAnts halGyA hanumAnt → * hanumAn "pn"

See also exception rAtsasya.

KAZIKA saMyogAntasya padasya lopo bhavati. gomAn. yavamAn. kRtavAn. hatavAn. iha zreyAn, bhUyAniti rutvam param api asiddhatvAt saMyogAntasay lopaM na bAdhate. jaztve tu nAprApte tadArabhyAte iti tasya bAdhakaM bhavati, yazaH, payaH iti. dadhyatra, madhvatra, ityatra tu yaNAdezasya bihiraGgalakSaNasya asiddhatvAt saMyogAntalopo na bhavati.

173 letters. -- 82.bse 411 -- popularity 36




(rAtsasya) (!rAts)

rAt sasya ONPANINI 82024
But after r, delete s only.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 957

Exception to saMyogAnta. Rule saMyogAnta will work normally on rs --

pitR + Gas Rta::ut piturs saMyogAnta pitur "of father"

but it won't work on the clusters that end in r plus non-s --

Urj- + su halGyA Urj coHkuH Urg beforepause Urk "strength; juice"

mRj + laG tip OR sip itazca mRj + t''' OR s''' halGyA mRj luGlaG aT + mRj mRjervRddhiH amArj vrazca amArS jhalAJjazonte amArD beforepause amArT "you / he / she rubbed"

The only Sanskrit words that end in two consonants are made by this exception.

KAZIKA saMyogAntapadasya yo rephaH tasmAduttarasya antasya sakArasya lopo bhavati. gobhirakSAH. pratyaJcamatsAH. kSarateH tsaratezca luGi sicaH chAndasatvAdIDabhAvaH bahulaM chandasi 73097 iti vacanAt. dIrghe sati rUpam etat. mAtuH, pituH iti Rta ut iti uttve kRte raparatve ca sati rAt sasy eti salopaH. siddhe satyArambho niyamArthaH, rAt sasya eva lopo bhavati, na anyasya iti. UrjeH kvip Urk. mRjeH laGi amArT.

286 letters. -- 82.bse 443 -- popularity 3




(dhica) (!dhi)

dhi ca ONPANINI 82025
(Erase s) before dh.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 958

This erases the s of sic, tAs, and lukclass roots that end in s (like As), before dhvam and dhve'''.

Examples --

As + laT dhvamAs + dhve'''Adhve "y'all sit"

As + laG dhvam AD-aj-AdInAm AT + As + dhvAm akassa Adhvam "y'all sat"

As + loT dhvamAs + dhvam''''Adhvam "please sit everybody"

kR + luT dhvamkR + tAs + dhve''' → * kartAdhve "y'all will do"

235 letters. -- 82.bse 471 -- popularity 1

1101 formation of /luT




(jhalojhali) (!jhalo)

jhalo jhali ONPANINI 82026
(Erase sic) after serious before serious.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 959

Examples --

bhid + luG ta luGlaG abhid + taabhid + sic + ta → * abhid + ta kharica abhitta "he broke"

gAh + luG thAsgAh + sic + thAs luGlaG agAh + s + thAs → * agAh + thAs hoDhaH agADhthAs jhaSastatho agADhdhAs STunA agADhDhas DhoDhelopaH agADhAs "you went into"

137 letters. -- 82.bse 503 -- popularity 4

53 Replacement of vowel (becomes vowel-like) when what is after it tries to change what is before it.

73 @Bent @soft /liG and /sic before @bent, (when [/iT]-less, are /kit after [/ik]-plus-[/hal] roots).

257 (!lip /sic' !hve get /aG) optionally before [@bent]s.




(hrasvAdaGgAt) (!hrasvA)

hrasvAd aGgAt ONPANINI 82027
iT-less ( sic to lopa) after short (before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 960 luG iT

As in --

kR + luG ta → .. → aT + kR + sic + ta → * akRta "made"

but before non- serious AtAm, the s stays --

kR + luG tas → .. → aT + kR + sic + AtAm kric akRSAtAm "both made"

and after long o too --

plu + luG ta → .. → aT + plu + sic + ta hardsoft aplosta kric aploSta STunA aploSTa "jumped"

KAZIKA hrasvAntAd aGgAd uttarasya lopo bhavati jhali parataH. akRta. akRthAH. ahRta. ahRthAH. hrasvAtiti kim? acyoSTa. aploSTa. aGgAtiti kim? alAviSTAm. alAviSuH. jhali ityeva, akRSAtAm. akRSata. ayam api sica eva lopaH, tena iha na bhavati, dviSTarAm, dviSTamAm iti. sujantAd dvizabdAt taraptamapau, adravyaprakarSe AtizayikaH Am pratyayaH.

157 letters. -- 82.bse 530 -- popularity 4

74 Same after !R !q.

75 After /han, /sic (is /kit before @bent).

204 (/han to /vadha) optionally before @bent (/luG).

217 (/sic to /luk optionally) after @uclass before /ta /thAs.




(iTaITi) (!iTa)

iTa:: ITi ONPANINI 82028
iSic disappears before It''' Is'''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 961

After sic and iSic, t''' s''' turn into It''' Is''' by astisico'pRkte. The sic stays, but the iSic is completely zapped. So after the seT root lU we have --

lU + luG tip → .. → alU + iSic + t'''alU + iSic + It''' sicivRddhiH alau + iSic + It → * alau + It''' ecoya alAvIt "he reaped"

You might want to remember this rule as " iSIt iSIs to It Is ".

After the other luG affixes, iS stays --

alU + iSic + jhi sij;abhyasta alU + iS + jus sicivRddhiH alau + iS + us ecoya alAviSus "they reaped"

The sic that has no iT stays before all luG affixes. So with the aniT root dRz -- --

dRz + luG tip → .. → adrAkSIt "he saw"

dRz + luG jhi → .. → adrAkSus "they saw"

See also tanAdibhyasta;thAsoH, a similar rule that works befor ta thAs.

KAZIKA iTaH uttarasya sakArasya lopo bhavati ITi parataH. adAvIt. alAvIt. asevIt. akoSIt. amoSIt. iTaH iti kim? akArSIt. ahArSIt. ITi iti kim? alAviSTAm. alAviSuH.

470 letters. -- 82.bse 562 -- popularity 8

203 (Replace /han with /vadha) before /luG (and @soft /liG).

647 Erase !a before @soft.

774 !a of {r}-{l}-ender root to /vRddhi (before /sic that is before @flat).

775 !vad !vraj and [/hal]-enders to (/vRddhi before /sic that is before @flat).

776 But not before /iSic.

777 @Light !a of a consonant-starter (to !A optionally before /iSic before @flat).

798 !yam !ram !nam, and {A}-enders, get !sak (before @flat /luG, and the /sic gets /iT).




(skossaMyogA) (/praca)

skoH saMyogAdyor ante ca ONPANINI 82029
Delete s k that start a cluster that is (before serious) or is wordfinal.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 962

Exception to saMyogAnta above, that would have dropped the last letter.

Examples of deleting s --

@soft liG tipyAsuT + tipyAs(uT) + t'''yAst → * yAt'''

as in

bhU + yAt'''bhUyAt "may he be"

lasj + ktalasj + na → * laj + na coHkuH lagna- "stuck to"

..

masj + kta → .. → magna- "sunk"

(This root lasj "adhere" appears listed in the mmw as lag, and the root masj "sink" as majj.)

Examples of deleting k --

AkAGkS + sva''' → * AkAGS + sva SaDhoHkassi AkAGk + sva kric AkAGkSva "look for!"

takS "hew" + kta → * taS + tataSTa- "was hewn, was pared"

pra + caks + laG ta luGlaG pra + acakSta akassa prAcakSta → * prAcaSta STunA prAcaSTa "he said"

pra + cakS + loT thAspracakS + sva''' → * pracaS + sva SaDhoHkassi pracakSva "speak!"

Example with a wordfinal sj --

bhrasj "fry" + kvip + su grahi;jyA bhRsj- + su halGyA bhRsj → * bhRj vrazcabhrasjas bhRS jhalAJjazonte bhRD "frier"

This bhrasj root is listed in inria mmw as bhRjj bhrajj.

KAZIKA padasya ante yaH saMyogaH, jhali parato vA yaH saMyogaH, tadAdyoH sakArakakArayor lopo bhavati. lasjeH lagnaH. lagnavAn. sAdhulak. masjeH magnaH. kakArasya takSeH taT. taSTaH. taSTavAn. kASThatat. jhali saGIti vaktavyam. kim idaM siGi iti? sanaH saprabhRti mahiGo GakAreNa pratyAhAraH. iha mA bhUt, kaSThazakSthAtA iti. thakAre jhali kakArasya saMyogAder lopaH prApnoti. tadatra zakeH kvibantasya prayoga eva na asti ityAha kASThazageva na asti, kuto 'yaM kASThazaki tiSThetiti. vAsyartham, kAkvartham ityatra api bahiraGgalakSaNasya yaNAdezasya asiddhatvAt saMyogAdilopo na bhavati. skoH iti kim? narnarti. varvarti. saMyogAdyoH iti kim? payaHzak. ante ca iti kim? takSitaH. takSakaH.

567 letters. -- 82.bse 609 -- popularity 4

211 /cakS to {khyA(J)} (before @soft).

745 !masj and !naz (get /num) before @serious.

916 Before ([/iT]-less) /san, vowel of {mI mA} /ghu, {rabh labh zak}, {pat pad} to !is.




(coHkuH) (!co)

coH kuH ONPANINI 82030
cu (that is wordfinal or before serious) to ku.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 963

This changes c ch j jh J into k kh g gh G respectively.

Example of wordfinal c to k --

vAc- + su halGyA vAc → * vAk jhalAJjazonte vAg beforepause vAk @f "speech"

Example of non- wordfinal j to g before t, which is a serious --

bhuj + tumun puganta bhoj + tum → * bhog + tum kharica bhoktum "to eat"

Sometimes cu will change into ku before a non- serious by rule cajoHku.

KAZIKA cavargasya kavargAdezo bhavati jhali parataH, padAnte ca. paktA. paktum. paktavyam. odanapak. vaktA. vaktum. vaktavyam. vAk. kruJcA ityatra siGi iti vacanAd JakArasya cakAre jhali kutvaM na bhavati, yujikruJcAM ca iti nipAtanAd vA. nakAropadho vA dhAturayaM repharahitazca kruJca kauTilyAlpIbhAvayoH iti paThyate. nakAralope hi nikucitiH iti dRzyate. yujikruJcAM ca iti tasyaiva repho 'dhiko nakArasya lopAbhAvazca iti nipAtyate. tatra anusvArasya parasavarNasya ca asiddhatvAt JakAra eva na asti iti kutvaM na bhaviSyati.

226 letters. -- 82.bse 645 -- popularity 31




(hoDhaH) (!hoD)

ho DhaH ONPANINI 82031
h (that is wordfinal or before serious) to Dh.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 964

Examples of wordfinal h --

madhulih- + bhis → * madhuliDh + bhis jhalAJjazonte madhuliDbhis "by bees"

madhulih- + su halGyA madhulih → * madhuliDh jhalAJjazonte madhuliD beforepause madhuliT "bee"

Examples of h before serious --

guh + kta → * guDh + ta jhaSasta guDh + dha STunA guDh + Dha DhoDhelopaH gu + Dha Dhralope gU + DhagUDha- "hidden"

vah + tRc → .. → voDhR- "carrier, puller"

sah + tumun → .. → soDhum "to endure"

The o came from sahivahorodavarNasya.

See also exception nahodhaH below.

KAZIKA hakArasya DhakAradezo bhavati jhali parataH padAnte ca. soDhA. soDhum. soDhavyam. jalASAt. voDhA. voDhum. voDhavyam. praSThavAT. divyavAT.

287 letters. -- 82.bse 661 -- popularity 27




(dAderdhAto) (!dAd)

dAder dhAtor ghaH ONPANINI 82032
d-starter h-ender root to gh (if wordfinal or before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 965

(Exception to hoDhaH, that would have replaced h with Dh here too.)

The roots that start with d and end in h are dah druh duh. This rule turns them into dagh drugh dugh.

Examples with the root before affixes that start with t, a serious letter --

dah + kta → * dagh + ta jhaSasta;tho dagh + dha jhalAJjazjhazi dagdha- "burnt"

duh + laT taduh + te'''dugh + te jhaSasta;tho dugh + dhe jhalAJjazjhazi dugdhe "he milks"

If the affix starts with s or dhv, there will be throwback --

duh + laT sip puganta doh + sip → * dogh + si throwback dhogh + si kharica dhok + si kric dhokSi "you milk"

dah + sya + tip → * dagh + sya + ti throwback dhag + syati kric dhagSyati kharica dhakSyati "he will burn"

And also if the root is wordfinal --

kAmaduh- @f + su halGyA kAmaduh → * kAmadugh throwback kAmadhugh jhalAJjazonte kAmadhug "desire-yielder" (name of a mythical cow)

druh + sup' svAdiSva druh ( wordfinal ) + su → * drugh + su jhalAJjazonte dhrug + su kharica dhruk + su kric dhrukSu "about traitors"

KAZIKA dakArAdeH dhAtoH hakArasya ghakArAdezo bhavati jhali parataH padAnte ca. dagdhA. dagdhum. dagdhavyam. kASThadhak. dogdhA. dogdhum. dogdhavyam. godhuk. dAdeH iti kim? leDhA. leDhum. leDhavyam. guDaliT. dhAtoH iti dAdisamAnAdhikaraNam etan na, kiM tarhi, tadvizeSaNam avayavaSaSThyantam, dhAtoravayavo yo dAdiH zabdas tadavayavasya hakArasya iti. kiM kRtaM bhavati? adhokityatra api ghakAraH siddho bhavati. kathaM dogdhA, dogdhum iti? vyapadezivadbhAvAt. atha vA dhAtUpadeze yo dAdiH ityevaM vijJAyate. tathA ca dAmalihamicchati dAmalihyati, dAmalihyateH kvip pratyayaH dAmaliTityatra api na bhavati.

574 letters. -- 82.bse 697 -- popularity 2

966 Optionally {druh muh SNuh SNih} to (!gh when @wordfinal or before @serious).




(vAdruhamu) (!vAd)

vA druha;muha; SNuha;SNihAm ONPANINI 82033
Optionally druh muh SNuh SNih to (gh when wordfinal or before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 966

Exception to hoDhaH, that would have made Dh.

When wordfinal --

druh- + su → * drugh + su halGyA drugh throwback dhrugh jhalAJjazonte dhrug "harmer"

As in mitradhrug "friend-harmer, traitor".

druh + bhis → .. → dhrugbhis

druh + sup' → .. → dhrukSu

Before serious t --

druh- + tRc → * droghdhR- jhalAMjazjhazi drogDhR-

In the alternative, hoDhaH works as usual --

druh- + su halGyA druh hoDhaH druDh throwback dhruDh jhalAJjazonte dhruD "harmer"

As in mitradhruD "friend-harmer".

druDbhis

druTsu

druh- + tRc hoDhaH droDhdhR- DhoDhe droDhR-

KAZIKA druha muha SNuha SNiha ityeteSAM dhAtUnAM hakArasya vA ghakArAdezo bhavati jhali parataH padAnte ca. druha drogdhA, droDhA. mitradhruk, mitradhruT. muha unmogdhA, unmoDhA. unmuk, unmuG. SNuha utsnogdhA, utsnoDhA. utsnuk, utsnuT. SNiha snegdhA, sneDhA. snik, sniT. druheH dAditvAd ghatvaMnityaM prAptam, itareSAm aprAptam eva ghatvaM vikalpyate.

Rule dAderdhA would have given druh compulsory gh replacement. This rule mentions druh to make the replacement optional.

413 letters. -- 82.bse 723 -- popularity none




(nahodhaH) (!nah)

naho dhaH ONPANINI 82034
nah to dh (when wordfinal or before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 967

Exception to hoDhaH. The root nah nahyati 04.0062 "tie" turns into nadh, not naDh.

Example--

nah + kta → * nadh + ta jhaSastatho nadh + dha jhalAJjazjhazi nad + dhanaddha- "tied"

More examples in the kAzikA.

KAZIKA naho hakArasya dhakArAdezo bhavati jhali pare padAnte ca. naddham. naddhum. naddhavyam. upAnat. parINat.

124 letters. -- 82.bse 770 -- popularity 1




(AhasthaH) (!Ah)

Ahas thaH ONPANINI 82035
Ah to th (before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 968

Exception to hoDhaH. Only example --

brU + laT sip bruvaHpaJcA brU + thal bruvaHpaJcA Ah + thal → * Aththa kharica Attha "you say"

KAZIKA Aho hakArasya thakAr'-Adezo bhavati jhali parataH. idam Attha. kim Attha. AdezAntarakaraNaM jhaSastathordho 'dhaH ityasya nivRtty-artham. jhali ity eva, Aha, AhatuH, AhuH. hRgrahorbhazchandasi hasyeti vaktavyam. gardabhena sambharati. grabhItA. jabhrire. udgrAbhaM ca nigrAbhaM ca brahma devA avIvRdhan.

67 letters. -- 82.bse 781 -- popularity 1




(vrazcabhrasja) (!vr)

vrazca;bhrasja;sRja; mRja;yaja;rAja; bhrAja;ccha;zAM SaH ONPANINI 82036
ch z vrazc bhrasj sRj mRj yaj rAj bhrAj to S (before serious and when wordfinal).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 969

Examples before serious t --

z to S --

dRz + kta → * dRS + ta STunA dRSTa- "was seen"

dRz + tumun sRji;dRzo draz + tum → * draS + tum STunA draSTum "to see"

ch to S. The cha mentioned in the rule replaces both ch proper, and its satellite c made by checa --

prach + tumun checa pracch + tum → * praStum STunA praSTum

sRj to sRS --

sRj + tRnsRj + tR sRjidRzo sRaj + tR ikoya srajtR- → * sraStR- STunA sraSTR- "loosener"

Examples with wordfinal --

z to S to D --

viz + su halGyA viz → * viS jhalAMjazonte viD

viz + bhis → * viS + bhis jhalAMjazonte viD + bhis "by settlers"

rAj to rAS to rAD --

samrAj- ( see morAji ) + su halGyA samrAj → * samrAS jhalAJjazonte samrAD beforepause samrAT "emperor"

parivrAj- + su → .. → parivrAD "wandering mendicant"

Counterexample. This rule will not work on a kvin-ender, because of the exception kvinpratyayasyakuH below.

diz- + su halGyA diz kvinpratyayasya dikh jhalAJjazonte dig "direction"

We know that diz- has kvin because Rtvig;dadhRk says so.

KAZIKA vrazca bhrasja sRja mRja yaja rAja bhrAja ityeteSAm, chakArAntAnAm, zakArAntAnAM ca SakAraH Adezo bhavati jhali parataH padAnte ca. vrazca vraSTA. vraSTum. vraSTavyam. mUlavRT. bhrasja bhraSTA. bhraSTum. bhraSTavyam. dhAnAbhRT. sRja sraSTa. sraSTum. sraSTavyam. rajjusRT. mRja mArSTA. mArSTum. mArSTavyam. kaMsaparimRT. yaja yaSTA. yaSTum. yaSTavyam. upayaT. rAja samrAT. svarAT. virAT. bhrAja vibhrAT. rAjabhrAjoH padAntArthaM grahaNam, jhalAdirAbhyAmiTA paryavapadyate. kecit tu rASTiH, bhrASTiH iti kvinnantam icchanti. chakArAntAnAm praccha praSTA. praSTum. praSTavyam. zabdaprAT. cchvoH zUDanunAsike cety atra kGiti ity anuvartate iti cha-grahaNam iha kriyate. zakArAntAnAm liz leSTA. leSTum. leSTavyam. liT. viz veSTA. veStum. veSTavyam. viT.

570 letters. -- 82.bse 804 -- popularity 19




(ekAcoba) (@thr)

ekAco bazo bhaS jhaS-antasya s;dhvoH ONPANINI 82037
baz of ekAc jhaS-ender root to bhaS when wordfinal or before s dhv.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 970

I call this rule as "the throwback rule", because it changes --

dugh into dhug,

budh into bhud,

guDh into ghuD,

and that looks as if the fake h jumped back.

Example when the h of duh- is wordfinal and turns into gh --

duh + laG tip luGlaG aduh + tipaduh + t''' halGyA aduh dAderdhAtorghaH adugh → * adhug "he milked"

duh- + su halGyA duh dAderdhAtorghaH dugh → * dhugh jhalAMjazo'nte dhug "milker"

as in --

kAma- + duh- + sukAmadhug "wish-yielder"

but h is not wordfinal in --

kAma- + duh- + amkAmaduham "wish-yielder"

Examples with dh Dh gh before s --

budh + sya + te''' → * bhudh + syate puganta bhodhsyate kharica bhotsyate "he will wake up"

duh + luG tipduh + t''' luGlaG aduh + taduh + ksa + t dAderdhAtorghaH adugh + sa + t → * adhughsat kharica adhuksat kric adhukSat "he milked"

duh + luG dhvam luGlaG a + duh + dhvamaduh + ksa + dhvam dAderdhAtorghaH adugh + sa + dhvam → * adhughsadhvam kharica adhuksadhvam kric adhukSadhvam "y'all milked"

Example with duh before dhvam --

duh + laG dhvam luGlaG aduh + dhvam dAderdhAtorghaH adugh + dhvam → * adhughdhvam jhalAJjazjhazi adhugdhvam "y'all milked"

KAZIKA dhAtoravayavo ya ekAc jhaSantaH tadavayavasya bazaH sthAne bhaSAdezo bhavati jhali sakAre dhvazabde ca parataH padAnte ca. atra catvaro bazaH sthAnino bhaSAdezAzcatvAra eva, tatra saGkhyAtAnudeze prApte DakArasya sthAnino 'bhAvAt DhakArAdezo na bhavati? Antaryato vyavasthA vijJAsyate. budha bhotsyante. abhuddhvam. arthabhut. guha nighokSyate. nyaghUDhvam. parNaghuT. duha dhokSyate. adhugdhvam. godhuk. ajarghAH gudheH yaGlugantasya laGi sipi labhUpadhaguNe kRte sipo halGyAdilope ca dhAtoH avayavasya ekAco bazaH sthAne bhaSbhAvaH, tato dhakArasya jaztvam, daz ca x iti rutvam, ro ri iti pUrvarephasya lopaH, Dhralope pUrvasya dIrgho 'NaH iti dIrghatvam. gadarbhayateH apratyayaH gardhap. ekAcaH iti kim? dAmaliham icchati dAmalihyati, dAmalihyater apratyayaH, dAmaliT. asati hy ekAj-grahaNe dhAtoH ity etad bazo vizeSaNaM syAt. bazaH iti kim? krudha krotsyati. jhaSantasya iti kim? dAsyati. sdhvoH iti kim? boddhA. voddhum. boddhavyam. dhakArasya bakAropasRSTasya grahaNaM kim? dAdaddhi. dadha dhAraNe ity etasya yaGluki loTi hujhalbhyo her dhiH iti dhi-bhAve satyetad bhavati.

Last time I checked, inria admitted adugdhvam and rejected adhugdhvam. Those are two bugs. pANini says so. zrI-pANinaye namahAAA. For better performance with uncommon forms, use the hyderabad tools instead. It's quite annoying to use but gets mostly everything right afaik.

867 letters. -- 82.bse 934 -- popularity 9

225 (/san has special senses) after !mAn !badh !dAn !zAn, and the @stammer [@lengthen]s.

680 (Before /kGit @hard), !A of /znA and @stammered to (/lopa).

781 /san (doesn't get /iT after) /grah, !guh, (!zri and [/uk]-enders).

918 (Vowel) of !dambh to !i too

966 Optionally {druh muh SNuh SNih} to (!gh when @wordfinal or before @serious).

1572 examples of reduplication before /san




(dadhastatho) (/dadh)

dadhas ta;thoz ca ONPANINI 82038
dadh to (dhadh-) before t th s dh.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 971

This " dadh " is the dadhA that came from dhA + zlu and lost A by znAbhyasta.

Examples before t, th, s, dh --

dhA + laT tas → .. → dadhA + tas znAbhyasta dadh + tas → * dhadhthas jhalAJjazjhazi dhadthas kharica dhatthas "both are putting"

dhA + laT thas → .. → dadh + thas → * dhadh + thas → .. → dhatthas "you two are putting"

dhA + laG thAs → .. → a + dadh + se''' → * a + dhadhseadhadseadhatse "thou didst put"

dhA + laT dhvam → .. → dadh- + dhve''' → * dhadhdhvedhaddhve "y'all are putting"

KAZIKA dadhaH iti dadhatiH kRtadvirvacano nirdizyate. tasya jhalantasya bazaH sthAne bhaSAdezo bhavati takArathakArayoH parataH, cakArAt sdhvozca parataH. dhattaH. dhatthaH. dhatse. dhaddhvam. vacanasAmarthyAdAto lopasya sthAnivadbhAvo na bhavati. abhyAsajaztvasya ca asiddhatvam. tathoH iti kim? AnantaryAt sdhvoreva vijJAyeta. cakAraH tayoranuvRttyarthaH. jhaSantasya ityeva, dadhAti.

298 letters. -- 82.bse 1154 -- popularity 2

973 !t !th to !dh after /jhaS, unless after !dhA.

1198 /dA "give", /dhA "put"
















74070 changes in stammers, word repetition ←

chunk 46: 82001 tripAdI

→ 82039 changes before serious, /niSThA to !n