74070 changes in stammers, word repetition ←

chunk 46: 82001 tripAdI

→ 82039 changes before serious, /niSThA to !n

82001 From this point on, rules cantgoback. pUrvatrAsiddham
82007 Nounbasefinal n to lopa. nalopaHprAtipadikAntasya
82008 But not before calling. naGisambuddhyoH
82009 matup to vatup after nexttolast or last m a A. Unless after yava etc. mAdupadhAyAzcamatorvoyavAdibhyaH
82010 after a stop. jhayaH
82023 Chop wordfinal cluster. saMyogAntasyalopaH
82024 But after r, delete s only. rAtsasya
82025 before dh. dhica
82026 after serious before serious. jhalojhali
82027 iT-less after short . hrasvAdaGgAt
82028 iSic disappears before It''' Is'''. iTaITi
82029 Delete s k that start a cluster that is or is wordfinal. skossaMyogAdyoranteca
82030 cu to ku. coHkuH
82031 h to Dh. hoDhaH
82032 d-starter h-ender root to gh . dAderdhAtorghaH
82033 Optionally druh muh SNuh SNih to . vAdruhamuhaSNuhaSNihAm
82034 nah to dh . nahodhaH
82035 Ah to th . AhasthaH
82036 ch z vrazc bhrasj sRj mRj yaj rAj bhrAj to S . vrazcabhrasjasRjamRjayajarAjabhrAjacchazAMSaH
82037 baz of ekAc jhaS-ender root to bhaS when wordfinal or before s dhv. ekAcobazobhaSjhaSantasyasdhvoH
82038 dadh to before t th s dh. dadhastathozca




(pUrvatrAsi) (@cant)

pUrvatr/Asiddham ONPANINI 82001
From this point on, rules cantgoback.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 916

This is a headline.

I nickname it the " cantgoback rule", because it teaches --

" After any of the rules after this point works,

none of the rules that are before that rule can work anymore. "

Or, in less words --

"from here onwards, you can't go back".

Example 1.

When joining dvau + atra "there are two here", rule ecoya replaces au with Av, then rule lopazzA turns av into a, so we can say dvA atra. At this point it might look like akassa should work. But it can't work, because 83019 lopazzA is after 82001, and 61101 akassa is before 83019 lopazzA, so we cannot go back.

Example 2.

The rules that are before 82001 turn hanumant- + su into hanumAnts first, then into hAnumant (by halGyA).

Now rule 82007 nalopaHprA cannot work, but 82023 saMyogAnta does, making hanumAn.

At this point it looks like nalopaHprA might work. But it doesn't, because 82007 nalopaHprA is before 82023 saMyogAnta, and the cantgoback principle says that after we have used 82023, we can't use any rule before 82023.

The rules below this one, that is, chapters 8.2, 8.3 and 8.4, are called the tripAdI "the three chapters at the end". Sometimes I call them the " assembly line", because they work in order.

KAZIKA pUrvatra asiddham ityadhikAro 'yam A adhyAyaparisamApteH. yadita Urdhvam anukramiSyAmaH pUrvatra asiddham ityevaM tad veditavyam. tatra yeyaM sapAdasaptAdhyAyI anukrAntA, etasyAm ayaM pAdono 'dhyAyo 'siddho bhavati. ita uttaraM ca uttara uttaro yogaH pUrvatra pUrvatra asiddho bhavati asiddhavad bhavati. siddhakAryam na karoti ityarthaH. tadetadasiddhatvavacanam AdezalakSaNapratiSedhArtham, utsargalakSaNabhAvArthaM ca. asmA uddhara, dvA atra, dvA Anaya, asA AdityaH ityatra vyalopasya zasiddhatvAt, Ad guNa iti, akaH savarNe dIrgha iti ca na bhavati. amuSmai, amuSmAt, amuSminiti utvasya asiddhatvAt smAyAdayo bhavanti. zuSkikA zuSkajaGghA ca kSAmimAnaujaDhattathA. matorvattve jhalAM jaztve guDaliNmAn nidarzanam. zuSkikA ityatra zuSaH kaH 82051 ityasya asiddhatvAdudIcAmAtaH sthAne yakapUrvAyAH 73046 ityetan na bhavati. zuSkajaGghA iti na kopadhAyAH 63037 iti puMvadbhAvapratiSedho na bhavati. kSAmimAniti kSAmasya apatyaM kSAmiH, kSAmo vA asya asti iti kSAmI, kSAmiH kSAmI vA yasya asti iti kSAmimAn. kSAyo maH ityasya asiddhatvAn mAdupadhAyAzca iti vatvaM na bhavati. aujaDhatiti vaherniSThAyAmUDhaH, tamAkhyatiti Nic, tadantAl luG, caGIti dvirvacane kartavye DhatvadhatvaSTutvaDhalopAnAm asiddhatvAN Nau ca yaH TilopaH, tasya sthAnivadbhAvAt tha ityetad dvirucyate. anaglope iti pratiSedhAt sanvadittvaM na asti, tena aujaDhatiti bhavati. aujiDhatityetat tu ktinnantasya uDhizabdasya bhavati. guDaliNmAniti guDaliho 'sya santi iti matup, tatra DhatvajaztvayorasiddhatvAt jhaya iti vatvaM na bhavati. ye 'tra SaSthInirdezAH, saptamInirdezAH, paJcamInirdezAzca, teSAM SaSThI sthAneyogA, tasminniti nirdiSTe pUrvasya, tasmAdityuttarasya iti ca kartavye na asiddhatva bhavati, kAryakAlaM hi saMjJAparibhASam iti pUrvatvamAsAM paribhASANAM na asti iti. vipratiSedhe param ityeSA ca paribhASA yena pUrveNa lakSaNena saha spardhate, paraM lakSaNaM tatprati tasya asiddhatvAn na pravartate. tathA ca visphoryam, agoryam iti guNaH pareNa hali ceti dIrghatvena na bAdhyate. apavAdasya tu parasya api utsarge kartavye vacanaprAmaNyAdasiddhatvaM na bhavati. tena dogdhA, dogdhum ityatra ghatvasya asiddhatvAd ho Dha iti na bhavati.

Didn't you teach us in class that we must say dvAvatra?

Yes I did. My mistake, sorry. Actually, pANini says that both dvAvatra and dvA_atra are good.

What's the literal translation of this rule?

"The changes made by any rule beyond this point do not trigger earlier rules".

You sure took out a lot of English words from just two, "pUrvatra and asiddham.

Okay. A more literal translation is -- "untriggering earlier".

1174 letters. -- 82.bse 10 -- popularity 16




(nalopaHprA) (!nalopa)

na-lopaH prAtipadik%Antasya ONPANINI 82007
Nounbasefinal ( wordfinal) n to lopa.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 917

Example 1.

rAjan- is a nounbase, and when we add su after it we get rAjAns.

This rAjAns is a word, and the rAjAn part inside it is a nounbase.

So this n of rAjAns is at the end of a nounbase, but not at the end of a word.

Now, when rule halGyA deletes the s, we get rAjAn, which is both a word and a nounbase.

So the n is now both wordfinal and nounbasefinal.

Then nalopaHprA deletes it, and we say rAjA.

Example 2.

The two words rAjJaH puruSaH "man of the king" can be made into a compound that means "king's officer, policeman".

rAjJas is built from rAjan- + Gas. The rAjan- nounbase is not a word, but after we add Gas, the resulting rAjJas is a word by rule suptiG.

Rule supodhA teaches that when we form the compound, and put rAjJAs in front of puRuSas, rAjJas loses its Gas by luk, and becomes rAjan again. This rAjan is still a word because rule nalumatAGgasya says so.

Therefore now the n of rAjan is both nounbasefinal and wordfinal.

So this rule nalopaHprA deletes the n, and we say rAjapuruSaH.

KAZIKA padasya iti vartate. prAtipadikasya padasya yo 'ntyo nakAraH tasya lopo bhavati. rAjA. rAjabhyAm. rAjabhiH. rAjatA. rAjataraH. rAjatamaH. prAtipadikagrahaNaM kim? ahannahim. antagrahaNaM kim? rAjAnau. rAjAnaH. prAtipadikagrahaNam asamastam eva supAM sulukiti SaSThyA lukA nirdiSTam. ahno nalopapratiSedho vaktavyaH. ahaH. ahobhyAm. ahobhiH. ro 'supi, ahan iti repharutvayorasiddhatvAt nalopaH prApnoti, sAvakAzaM tadubhayaM sambuddhau, he 'haH, he dIrghAto nidAgheti? tatra samAdhimAhuH. ahaniti ruvidhau yadupAdIyate prathamaikavacanAntam akRtanalopaM tadAvartyate, tatra ekayA AvRttyA tadevaM rUpaM nalopAbhAvArtham anvAkhyAyate, dvitIyayApi tasya ruH vidhIyate.

773 letters. -- 82.bse 271 -- popularity 32




(naGisambu) (!naG)

na Gi;saMbuddhyoH ONPANINI 82008
But not before calling.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 918

Exception to nalopaHprA above -- the wordfinal nounbasefinal n does stay if it was before calling.

Examples --

rAjan- + @calling su halGyA rAjan- + loparAjan "hey king"

yogin- + @callingyogin "hey yogi"

KAZIKA Gau parataH sambuddhau ca nakAra-lopo na bhavati. Ardre carman. lohite carman. supAM lukiti Gerluk. sambuddhau he rAjan. he takSan. etasmAd eva nalopapratiSedhavacanAtapratyayaH iti pratyayalakSaNena prAtipadikasaMjJA na pratiSidhyate iti jJApyate, bhasaMjJA ca na bhavati iti. tathA ca rAjJaH puruSaH rAjapuruSaH ityatra nalopazca bhavati, allopazca na bhavati. GAvuttarapade pratiSedhasya pratiSedho vaktavyaH. carmaNi tilA asya carmatilaH. he rAjan vRndAraka ityatra samudAyArthasambodhanam, na pUrvapadArthasambodhanaM pratIyate iti sambuddhyantaM pUrvapadaM na eva samasyate. vA napuMsakAnAm iti vaktavyam. he carman, he carma.

What's the Gi in the original rule?

vedic affix, not the everyday Gi. NVM it.

206 letters. -- 82.bse 300 -- popularity 3

718 (@neuter) !i !u (gets /num) before @vowel /vibhakti.

732 /pums- to {as(uG)} (before @strong).

1515 /rAjA, /nAma, /pitA, /rAjan, /pitar




(mAdupadhA) (/vatu)

m;Ad upadhAyAz ca mator vo 'yavAdibhyaH ONPANINI 82009
matup to vatup after nexttolast or last m a A. Unless after yava etc.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 919

Examples with m a A-enders --

vRkSAs + matup → * vRkSavat- "treed"

mAlA + matup → * mAlAvat- "garlanded"

kim + matup → * kiMvat- "having what?"

Examples with nexttolast a --

yazas + matup → * yazasvat- "good-famed"

saras + matup → * sarasvat- "many-laked"

Counterexamples with no m a A --

gomat- "that has cattle"

See also rule jhayaH.

Why didn't yazas- saras- garut- behave as words in yazasvat sarasvat garutmat?

Exception tasauma.

Why do we say "But not after yava etc." ?

Means that if you come across exceptions to this rule, such as

yavamat- "that has barley"

in serious ancient writers, they are fine. Just don't make your own exceptions, okay?

475 letters. -- 82.bse 326 -- popularity 11




(jhayaH) (!jhaya)

jhayaH ONPANINI 82010
( matup to vatup) after a stop.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 920

Addition to mAdupa above.

Examples:

vidyut- + matup → * vidyutvat- "that has lightning"

megho vidyutvAn "the cloud has (lots of) lightning"

marutvat- "that has maruts"

marutvAn indraH " indra lord of the winds"

dRSadvat- "that has (many) rocks"

dRSadvantaH parvatAH "the Rocky Mountains"

dRSadvantaH "the Rockies"

This rule has random exceptions, like --

garutmat- "that has wings"

KAZIKA jhayantAd uttarasya matoH vaH ity ayam Adezo bhavati. agnicitvAn grAmaH. vidyutvAn balAhakaH. indro marutvAn. dRSadvAn dezaH.

291 letters. -- 82.bse 369 -- popularity 2

916 From this point on, rules @cantgoback.




(saMyogAnta) (!saMy)

saMyog%Antasya lopaH ONPANINI 82023
chop wordfinal cluster.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 921

As in --

nRt + laG jhinRt + zyan + jhinRt + zyan + ant''' luGlaG anRtyant → * anRtyan "they danced"

hanumat(up)- + su atvasa hanumAts ugidacA hanumAnts halGyA hanumAnt → * hanumAn "pn"

See also exception rAtsasya.

Why didn't nalopaHprA work on anRtyan, hanumAn?

Because of cantgoback.

Did this rule work when making dviS + laG tip into adveT?

No, because halGyA has preference over this, because of cantgoback.

Why didnt this rule work as soon as we good hanumAnts? Because nts is a cluster, yes?

nts is a cluster, yes, but rule halGyA must work before this rule can work. Because rule cantgoback says so.

438 letters. -- 82.bse 380 -- popularity 36




(rAtsasya) (!rAts)

rAt sasya ONPANINI 82024
But after r, delete s only.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 922

Exception to saMyogAnta. Rule saMyogAnta will work normally on rs --

pitR + Gas Rta::ut piturs saMyogAnta pitur "of father"

but it won't work on the clusters that end in r plus non-s --

Urj- + su halGyA Urj coHkuH Urg beforepause Urk "strength; juice"

mRj + laG tip OR sip itazca mRj + t''' OR s''' halGyA mRj luGlaG aT + mRj mRjervRddhiH amArj vrazca amArS jhalAJjazonte amArD beforepause amArT "you / he / she rubbed"

The only Sanskrit words that end in two consonants are made by this exception.

KAZIKA saMyogAntapadasya yo rephaH tasmAduttarasya antasya sakArasya lopo bhavati. gobhirakSAH. pratyaJcamatsAH. kSarateH tsaratezca luGi sicaH chAndasatvAdIDabhAvaH bahulaM chandasi 73097 iti vacanAt. dIrghe sati rUpam etat. mAtuH, pituH iti Rta ut iti uttve kRte raparatve ca sati rAt sasya iti salopaH. siddhe satyArambho niyamArthaH, rAt sasya eva lopo bhavati, na anyasya iti. UrjeH kvip Urk. mRjeH laGi amArT.

The original rule looks like it says "after r, delete s". Why did you add the word "only" to your translation?

See niyama.

378 letters. -- 82.bse 416 -- popularity 2




(dhica) (!dhi)

dhi ca ONPANINI 82025
(Erase s) before dh.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 923

This erases the s of sic, tAs, and lukclass roots that end in s (like As), before dhvam and dhve'''.

Examples --

As + laT dhvamAs + dhve'''Adhve "y'all sit"

As + laG dhvam AD-aj-AdInAm AT + As + dhvAm akassa Adhvam "y'all sat"

As + loT dhvamAs + dhvam''''Adhvam "please sit everybody"

kR + luT dhvamkR + tAs + dhve''' → * kartAdhve "y'all will do"

235 letters. -- 82.bse 442 -- popularity 1

1062 /luT terminations.




(jhalojhali) (!jhalo)

jhalo jhali ONPANINI 82026
(Erase sic) after serious before serious.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 924

Examples --

bhid + luG ta luGlaG abhid + taabhid + sic + ta → * abhid + ta kharica abhitta "he broke"

gAh + luG thAsgAh + sic + thAs luGlaG agAh + s + thAs → * agAh + thAs hoDhaH agADhthAs jhaSastatho agADhdhAs STunA agADhDhas DhoDhelopaH agADhAs "you went into"

137 letters. -- 82.bse 474 -- popularity 4

52 Replacement of vowel (becomes vowel-like) when what is after it tries to change what is before it.

72 @Bent @soft /liG and /sic before @bent, (when [/iT]-less, are /kit after [/ik]-plus-[/hal] roots).

247 (!lip /sic' !hve get /aG) optionally before [@bent]s.




(hrasvAdaGgAt) (!hrasvA)

hrasvAd aGgAt ONPANINI 82027
iT-less ( sic to lopa) after short (before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 925 luG iT

As in --

kR + luG ta → .. → aT + kR + sic + ta → * akRta "made"

but before non- serious AtAm, the s stays --

kR + luG tas → .. → aT + kR + sic + AtAm kric akRSAtAm "both made"

and after long o too --

plu + luG ta → .. → aT + plu + sic + ta hardsoft aplosta kric aploSta STunA aploSTa "jumped"

KAZIKA hrasvAntAd aGgAd uttarasya lopo bhavati jhali parataH. akRta. akRthAH. ahRta. ahRthAH. hrasvAtiti kim? acyoSTa. aploSTa. aGgAtiti kim? alAviSTAm. alAviSuH. jhali ityeva, akRSAtAm. akRSata. ayam api sica eva lopaH, tena iha na bhavati, dviSTarAm, dviSTamAm iti. sujantAd dvizabdAt taraptamapau, adravyaprakarSe AtizayikaH Am pratyayaH.

157 letters. -- 82.bse 501 -- popularity 4

73 Same after !R !q.

74 After /han, /sic (is /kit before @bent).

198 (/han to /vadha) optionally before @bent (/luG).

210 (/sic to /luk optionally) after @uclass before /ta /thAs.




(iTaITi) (!iTa)

iTa:: ITi ONPANINI 82028
iSic disappears before It''' Is'''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 926

After sic and iSic, t''' s''' turn into It''' Is''' by astisico'pRkte. The sic stays, but the iSic is completely zapped. So after the seT root lU we have --

lU + luG tip → .. → alU + iSic + t'''alU + iSic + It''' sicivRddhiH alau + iSic + It → * alau + It''' ecoya alAvIt "he reaped"

You might want to remember this rule as " iSIt iSIs to It Is ".

After the other luG affixes, iS stays --

alU + iSic + jhi sij;abhyasta alU + iS + jus sicivRddhiH alau + iS + us ecoya alAviSus "they reaped"

The sic that has no iT stays before all luG affixes. So with the aniT root dRz -- --

dRz + luG tip → .. → adrAkSIt "he saw"

dRz + luG jhi → .. → adrAkSus "they saw"

See also tanAdibhyasta;thAsoH, a similar rule that works befor ta thAs.

KAZIKA iTaH uttarasya sakArasya lopo bhavati ITi parataH. adAvIt. alAvIt. asevIt. akoSIt. amoSIt. iTaH iti kim? akArSIt. ahArSIt. ITi iti kim? alAviSTAm. alAviSuH.

470 letters. -- 82.bse 533 -- popularity 8

197 (Replace /han with /vadha) before /luG (and @soft /liG).

619 Erase !a before @soft.

743 !a of {r}-{l}-ender root to /vRddhi (before /sic that is before @flat).

744 !vad !vraj and [/hal]-enders to (/vRddhi before /sic that is before @flat).

745 But not before /iSic.

746 @Light !a of a consonant-starter (to !A optionally before /iSic before @flat).

766 !yam !ram !nam, and {A}-enders, get !sak (before @flat /luG, and the /sic gets /iT).




(skossaMyogA) (/praca)

skoH saMyogAdyor ante ca ONPANINI 82029
Delete s k that start a cluster that is (before serious) or is wordfinal.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 927

Exception to saMyogAnta above, that would have dropped the last letter.

Examples of deleting s --

@soft liG tipyAsuT + tipyAs(uT) + t'''yAst → * yAt'''

as in

bhU + yAt'''bhUyAt "may he be"

lasj + ktalasj + na → * laj + na coHkuH lagna- "stuck to"

..

masj + kta → .. → magna- "sunk"

(This root lasj "adhere" appears listed in the mmw as lag, and the root masj "sink" as majj.)

Examples of deleting k --

AkAGkS + sva''' → * AkAGS + sva SaDhoHkassi AkAGk + sva kric AkAGkSva "look for!"

takS "hew" + kta → * taS + tataSTa- "was hewn, was pared"

pra + caks + laG ta luGlaG pra + acakSta akassa prAcakSta → * prAcaSta STunA prAcaSTa "he said"

pra + cakS + loT thAspracakS + sva''' → * pracaS + sva SaDhoHkassi pracakSva "speak!"

Example with a wordfinal sj --

bhrasj "fry" + kvip + su grahi;jyA bhRsj- + su halGyA bhRsj → * bhRj vrazcabhrasjas bhRS jhalAJjazonte bhRD "frier"

This bhrasj root is listed in inria mmw as bhRjj bhrajj.

KAZIKA padasya ante yaH saMyogaH, jhali parato vA yaH saMyogaH, tadAdyoH sakArakakArayor lopo bhavati. lasjeH lagnaH. lagnavAn. sAdhulak. masjeH magnaH. kakArasya takSeH taT. taSTaH. taSTavAn. kASThatat. jhali saGIti vaktavyam. kim idaM siGi iti? sanaH saprabhRti mahiGo GakAreNa pratyAhAraH. iha mA bhUt, kaSThazakSthAtA iti. thakAre jhali kakArasya saMyogAder lopaH prApnoti. tadatra zakeH kvibantasya prayoga eva na asti ityAha kASThazageva na asti, kuto 'yaM kASThazaki tiSThetiti. vAsyartham, kAkvartham ityatra api bahiraGgalakSaNasya yaNAdezasya asiddhatvAt saMyogAdilopo na bhavati. skoH iti kim? narnarti. varvarti. saMyogAdyoH iti kim? payaHzak. ante ca iti kim? takSitaH. takSakaH.

567 letters. -- 82.bse 580 -- popularity 3

714 !masj and !naz (get /num) before @serious.

882 Before ([/iT]-less) /san, vowel of {mI;mA;}/ghu; {rabh;labh;zak; pat;pad} to !is.

1061 @Soft @flat /liG.




(coHkuH) (!co)

coH kuH ONPANINI 82030
cu (that is wordfinal or before serious) to ku.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 928

This changes c ch j jh J into k kh g gh G respectively.

Example of wordfinal c to k --

vAc- + su halGyA vAc → * vAk jhalAJjazonte vAg beforepause vAk @f "speech"

Example of non- wordfinal j to g before t, which is a serious --

bhuj + tumun puganta bhoj + tum → * bhog + tum kharica bhoktum "to eat"

Sometimes cu will change into ku before a non- serious by rule cajoHku.

KAZIKA cavargasya kavargAdezo bhavati jhali parataH, padAnte ca. paktA. paktum. paktavyam. odanapak. vaktA. vaktum. vaktavyam. vAk. kruJcA ityatra siGi iti vacanAd JakArasya cakAre jhali kutvaM na bhavati, yujikruJcAM ca iti nipAtanAd vA. nakAropadho vA dhAturayaM repharahitazca kruJca kauTilyAlpIbhAvayoH iti paThyate. nakAralope hi nikucitiH iti dRzyate. yujikruJcAM ca iti tasyaiva repho 'dhiko nakArasya lopAbhAvazca iti nipAtyate. tatra anusvArasya parasavarNasya ca asiddhatvAt JakAra eva na asti iti kutvaM na bhaviSyati.

226 letters. -- 82.bse 616 -- popularity 29




(hoDhaH) (!hoD)

ho DhaH ONPANINI 82031
h (that is wordfinal or before serious) to Dh.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 929

Examples of wordfinal h --

madhulih- + bhis → * madhuliDh + bhis jhalAJjazonte madhuliDbhis "by bees"

madhulih- + su halGyA madhulih → * madhuliDh jhalAJjazonte madhuliD beforepause madhuliT "bee"

Examples of h before serious --

guh + kta → * guDh + ta jhaSasta guDh + dha STunA guDh + Dha DhoDhelopaH gu + Dha Dhralope gU + DhagUDha- "hidden"

vah + tRc → .. → voDhR- "carrier, puller"

sah + tumun → .. → soDhum "to endure"

The o came from sahivahorodavarNasya.

See also exception nahodhaH below.

Wait. If Dh is wordfinal or before serious, it will eventually turn into D, either by 82039 jhalAJjazonte or by 84053 jhalAJjazjhazi. So, why didn't pANini just say "replace h with D" directly?

Because Dh, unlike D, triggers DhoDhelopaH below. Reread the steps for gUDha- above.

497 letters. -- 82.bse 632 -- popularity 27




(dAderdhAto) (!dAd)

dAder dhAtor ghaH ONPANINI 82032
d-starter h-ender root to gh (if wordfinal or before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 930

(Exception to hoDhaH, that would have replaced h with Dh here too.)

The roots that start with d and end in h are dah druh duh. This rule turns them into dagh drugh dugh.

Examples with the root before affixes that start with t, a serious letter --

dah + kta → * dagh + ta jhaSasta;tho dagh + dha jhalAJjazjhazi dagdha- "burnt"

duh + laT taduh + te'''dugh + te jhaSasta;tho dugh + dhe jhalAJjazjhazi dugdhe "he milks"

If the affix starts with s or dhv, there will be throwback --

duh + laT sip puganta doh + sip → * dogh + si throwback dhogh + si kharica dhok + si kric dhokSi "you milk"

dah + sya + tip → * dagh + sya + ti throwback dhag + syati kric dhagSyati kharica dhakSyati "he will burn"

And also if the root is wordfinal --

kAmaduh- @f + su halGyA kAmaduh → * kAmadugh throwback kAmadhugh jhalAJjazonte kAmadhug "desire-yielder" (name of a mythical cow)

druh + sup' svAdiSva druh ( wordfinal ) + su → * drugh + su jhalAJjazonte dhrug + su kharica dhruk + su kric dhrukSu "about traitors"

KAZIKA dakArAdeH dhAtoH hakArasya ghakArAdezo bhavati jhali parataH padAnte ca. dagdhA. dagdhum. dagdhavyam. kASThadhak. dogdhA. dogdhum. dogdhavyam. godhuk. dAdeH iti kim? leDhA. leDhum. leDhavyam. guDaliT. dhAtoH iti dAdisamAnAdhikaraNam etan na, kiM tarhi, tadvizeSaNam avayavaSaSThyantam, dhAtoravayavo yo dAdiH zabdas tadavayavasya hakArasya iti. kiM kRtaM bhavati? adhokityatra api ghakAraH siddho bhavati. kathaM dogdhA, dogdhum iti? vyapadezivadbhAvAt. atha vA dhAtUpadeze yo dAdiH ityevaM vijJAyate. tathA ca dAmalihamicchati dAmalihyati, dAmalihyateH kvip pratyayaH dAmaliTityatra api na bhavati.

574 letters. -- 82.bse 663 -- popularity 2

931 Optionally {druh muh SNuh SNih} to (!gh when @wordfinal or before @serious).




(vAdruhamu) (!vAd)

vA druha;muha; SNuha;SNihAm ONPANINI 82033
Optionally druh muh SNuh SNih to (gh when wordfinal or before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 931

Exception to hoDhaH, that would have made Dh.

When wordfinal --

druh- + su → * drugh + su halGyA drugh throwback dhrugh jhalAJjazonte dhrug "harmer"

As in mitradhrug "friend-harmer, traitor".

Before serious t --

druh- + tRc → * droghdhR- jhalAMjazjhazi drogDhR-

In the alternative, hoDhaH works as usual --

druh- + su halGyA druh hoDhaH druDh throwback dhruDh jhalAJjazonte dhruD "harmer"

As in mitradhruD "friend-harmer".

druh- + tRc hoDhaH droDhdhR- DhoDhe droDhR-

KAZIKA druha muha SNuha SNiha ityeteSAM dhAtUnAM hakArasya vA ghakArAdezo bhavati jhali parataH padAnte ca. druha drogdhA, droDhA. mitradhruk, mitradhruT. muha unmogdhA, unmoDhA. unmuk, unmuG. SNuha utsnogdhA, utsnoDhA. utsnuk, utsnuT. SNiha snegdhA, sneDhA. snik, sniT. druheH dAditvAd ghatvaMnityaM prAptam, itareSAm aprAptam eva ghatvaM vikalpyate.

Wait.. what's the need of including druh here? Didn't dAderdhA give it gh already?

dAderdhA would have given it compulsory gh. This rule makes gh optional.

390 letters. -- 82.bse 680 -- popularity none




(nahodhaH) (!nah)

naho dhaH ONPANINI 82034
nah to dh (when wordfinal or before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 932

Exception to hoDhaH. The root nah nahyati 04.0062 "tie" turns into nadh, not naDh.

Example--

nah + kta → * nadh + ta jhaSastatho nadh + dha jhalAJjazjhazi nad + dhanaddha- "tied"

More examples in the kAzikA.

KAZIKA naho hakArasya dhakArAdezo bhavati jhali pare padAnte ca. naddham. naddhum. naddhavyam. upAnat. parINat.

124 letters. -- 82.bse 720 -- popularity 1




(AhasthaH) (!Ah)

Ahas thaH ONPANINI 82035
Ah to th (before serious).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 933

Exception to hoDhaH. Only example --

brU + laT sip bruvaHpaJcA brU + thal bruvaHpaJcA Ah + thal → * Aththa kharica Attha "you say"

KAZIKA Aho hakArasya thakAr'-Adezo bhavati jhali parataH. idam Attha. kim Attha. AdezAntarakaraNaM jhaSastathordho 'dhaH ityasya nivRtty-artham. jhali ity eva, Aha, AhatuH, AhuH. hRgrahorbhazchandasi hasyeti vaktavyam. gardabhena sambharati. grabhItA. jabhrire. udgrAbhaM ca nigrAbhaM ca brahma devA avIvRdhan.

This rule should have been AhaH. Then dh would have trickled down from previous rule, making " Ah to dh before serious", which would have made Attha anyway, because dh too, like th, becomes t by kharica.

That's good thinking -- however, you forgot about rule jhaSastatho.

279 letters. -- 82.bse 740 -- popularity 1




(vrazcabhrasja) (!vr)

vrazca;bhrasja;sRja; mRja;yaja;rAja; bhrAja;ccha;zAM SaH ONPANINI 82036
ch z vrazc bhrasj sRj mRj yaj rAj bhrAj to S (before serious and when wordfinal).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 934

Examples before serious t --

z to S --

dRz + kta → * dRS + ta STunA dRSTa- "was seen"

dRz + tumun sRji;dRzo draz + tum → * draS + tum STunA draSTum "to see"

ch to S. The cha mentioned in the rule replaces both ch proper, and its satellite c made by checa --

prach + tumun checa pracch + tum → * praStum STunA praSTum

sRj to sRS --

sRj + tRnsRj + tR sRjidRzo sRaj + tR ikoya srajtR- → * sraStR- STunA sraSTR- "loosener"

Examples with wordfinal --

z to S to D --

viz + su halGyA viz → * viS jhalAMjazonte viD

viz + bhis → * viS + bhis jhalAMjazonte viD + bhis "by settlers"

rAj to rAS to rAD --

samrAj- ( see morAji ) + su halGyA samrAj → * samrAS jhalAJjazonte samrAD beforepause samrAT "emperor"

parivrAj- + su → .. → parivrAD "wandering mendicant"

I'm confused. Why doesn't this rule change the z of wordfinal diz-? Actually, wordfinal diz becomes dikh by kvinpratyaya, but I think that you said that rule cantgoback is supposed to stop 82062 kvinpratyaya from working before 82036 vrazca works.

I didn't say that. I said that after kvinpra actually works, the changes made by kvinpra will not trigger earlier rules. But rule cantgoback does not forbid later rules from being exceptions to earlier rules. Here vrazca does not work because the more specific kvinpra overrides it.

836 letters. -- 82.bse 761 -- popularity 21




(ekAcoba) (@thr)

ekAco bazo bhaS jhaS-antasya s;dhvoH ONPANINI 82037
baz of ekAc jhaS-ender root to bhaS when wordfinal or before s dhv.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 935

I call this rule as "the throwback rule", because it changes --

dugh into dhug,

budh into bhud,

guDh into ghuD,

and that looks as if the fake h jumped back.

Example when the h of duh- is wordfinal and turns into gh --

duh + laG tip luGlaG aduh + tipaduh + t''' halGyA aduh dAderdhAtorghaH adugh → * adhug "he milked"

duh- + su halGyA duh dAderdhAtorghaH dugh → * dhugh jhalAMjazo'nte dhug "milker"

as in --

kAma- + duh- + sukAmadhug "wish-yielder"

but h is not wordfinal in --

kAma- + duh- + amkAmaduham "wish-yielder"

Examples with dh Dh gh before s --

budh + sya + te''' → * bhudh + syate puganta bhodhsyate kharica bhotsyate "he will wake up"

duh + luG tipduh + t''' luGlaG aduh + taduh + ksa + t dAderdhAtorghaH adugh + sa + t → * adhughsat kharica adhuksat kric adhukSat "he milked"

duh + luG dhvam luGlaG a + duh + dhvamaduh + ksa + dhvam dAderdhAtorghaH adugh + sa + dhvam → * adhughsadhvam kharica adhuksadhvam kric adhukSadhvam "y'all milked"

Example with duh before dhvam --

duh + laG dhvam luGlaG aduh + dhvam dAderdhAtorghaH adugh + dhvam → * adhughdhvam jhalAJjazjhazi adhugdhvam "y'all milked"

KAZIKA dhAtoravayavo ya ekAc jhaSantaH tadavayavasya bazaH sthAne bhaSAdezo bhavati jhali sakAre dhvazabde ca parataH padAnte ca. atra catvaro bazaH sthAnino bhaSAdezAzcatvAra eva, tatra saGkhyAtAnudeze prApte DakArasya sthAnino 'bhAvAt DhakArAdezo na bhavati? Antaryato vyavasthA vijJAsyate. budha bhotsyante. abhuddhvam. arthabhut. guha nighokSyate. nyaghUDhvam. parNaghuT. duha dhokSyate. adhugdhvam. godhuk. ajarghAH gudheH yaGlugantasya laGi sipi labhUpadhaguNe kRte sipo halGyAdilope ca dhAtoH avayavasya ekAco bazaH sthAne bhaSbhAvaH, tato dhakArasya jaztvam, daz ca x iti rutvam, ro rIti pUrvarephasya lopaH, Dhralope pUrvasya dIrgho 'Na iti dIrghatvam. gadarbhayateH apratyayaH gardhap. ekAcaH iti kim? dAmaliham icchati dAmalihyati, dAmalihyaterapratyayaH, dAmaliT. asati hy ekAj-grahaNe dhAtoH ity etad bazo vizeSaNaM syAt. bazaH iti kim? krudha krotsyati. jhaSantasya iti kim? dAsyati. sdhvoH iti kim? boddhA. voddhum. boddhavyam. dhakArasya bakAropasRSTasya grahaNaM kim? dAdaddhi. dadha dhAraNe ity etasya yaGluki loTi hujhalbhyo her dhir iti dhibhAve satyetad bhavati.

Why does inria admit adugdhvam and rejects adhugdhvam? Methinks yer wrong.

Those are two bugs. pANini says so. zrIpANinayenamahAAA.

751 letters. -- 82.bse 880 -- popularity 8

69 (/ktvA) and /san (are /kit) after {rud vid muS grah} /svap !pracch.

218 (/san has special senses) after !mAn !badh !dAn !zAn, and the @stammer [@lengthen]s.

749 /san (doesn't get /iT after) !grah, !guh, (!zri and [/uk]-enders).

884 (Vowel) of !dambh to !i too

931 Optionally {druh muh SNuh SNih} to (!gh when @wordfinal or before @serious).




(dadhastatho) (/dadh)

dadhas ta;thoz ca ONPANINI 82038
dadh to (dhadh-) before t th s dh.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 936

This " dadh " is the dadhA that came from dhA + zlu and lost A by znAbhyasta.

Examples before t, th, s, dh --

dhA + laT tas → .. → dadhA + tas znAbhyasta dadh + tas → * dhadhthas jhalAJjazjhazi dhadthas kharica dhatthas "both are putting"

dhA + laT thas → .. → dadh + thas → * dhadh + thas → .. → dhatthas "you two are putting"

dhA + laG thAs → .. → a + dadh + se''' → * a + dhadhseadhadseadhatse "thou didst put"

dhA + laT dhvam → .. → dadh- + dhve''' → * dhadhdhvedhaddhve "y'all are putting"

298 letters. -- 82.bse 1099 -- popularity 2

938 !t !th to !dh after /jhaS, unless after !dhA.

1151 /dA "give", /dhA "put"
















74070 changes in stammers, word repetition ←

chunk 46: 82001 tripAdI

→ 82039 changes before serious, /niSThA to !n