special words ←

chunk 63: preverbs

→ DEFINITIONS --------------------------------------------------

List of preverbs.
abhi "towards, approaching"
adhi "towards, approaching"
ati "surpassing, beyond, too much"
apa "away; down; badly"
upa "near; down"
AG "coming"
anu "after"
ava "down"
dus means bad, hard to do, or evil
ku' means evil or bad
su' means good, very, or easily
ni "down"
pari "around"
pra "pre-"
prati "towards; against"
some prefixes

(listofpreverbs) (listp)

List of preverbs.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1274

The meanings of the prAdi can be quite unpredictable. And in some cases they are meaningless (pravizati and vizati both mean "enter", Arohati and rohati are both "climb"). So take the following list as "general guidelines", not as accurate translations --

abhi "towards, approaching"

adhi "towards, approaching"

AG as in Agacchati "comes", from gacchati "goes" (not same as AG', and old name for TA)

anu "following"

apa "away; south"

ati "surpassing, beyond, too much"

ava "down; south"

ni "down"

pari "around"

sam "coming together"

ud "up; north"

upa "near; down"

vi "all around, spreading outwards, going apart"

See also the upasarga list at learnsanskrit dor org.

564 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 3 -- popularity 4

1288 /pra "pre-"

(/abhi) (/ab)

abhi "towards, approaching"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1275

0 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 30 -- popularity 8

547 Rootstarter !S to !s.

659 /ghu {mA sthA gA pA jahAti sA} to !I before consonant /kGit @soft.

1042 The next rules down to !!parinivibhyaHsevasita work even when /aT is in between.

1047 !syand to !S after /anu /vi /pari /abhi /ni (optionally), if meaning nonliving beings

1198 /sic' "sprinkle"

1222 /gam "go"

1274 List of [@preverb]s.

1298 /prAdi are !pra etc.

(/adhi) (/adh)

adhi "towards, approaching"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1276

gacchati "goes"

adhigacchati "goes near, approaches"

42 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 30 -- popularity 10

(/ati) (/ati)

ati "surpassing, beyond, too much"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1277

kramate "advances by steps, walks"

atikramate "goes beyond, transgresses"

59 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 30 -- popularity 6

44 /ec shorten into !i !u.

89 Shorten /go- and [/GI]-[/Ap]-enders when they are @latter and @subordinate.

103 (Use @bent) to [@mean the doer] of swapped action.

687 !a of /znam and /as to /lopa (before /kGit).

1274 List of [@preverb]s.

1298 /prAdi are !pra etc.

(/apa) (/apa)

apa "away; down; badly"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1278

0 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 40 -- popularity 4

108 (@Bent) after !jJA when meaning 'denying'.

599 !kq gets {s(uT)} after /apa when quadrupeds birds dig.

661 Optionally !mA to !mi (before /lyap).

1274 List of [@preverb]s.

(/upa) (/upa)

upa "near; down"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1279

As in --

gacchati "goes"

upagacchati "goes near, approaches, goes to see"

vizati "goes in"

upavizati "sits down"

hasati "laughs"

upahasati "laughs down at, derides, ridicules"

132 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 40 -- popularity 8

112 /pra !yuj and /upa !yuj (get @bent).

379 After movement, @objectless, !zliS, /zIG, /sthA, /As, /vas', !jan, !ruh, !jR (/kta optionally [@means the doer]).

572 (Delete) "!a !A" of a @preverb before /eG.

598 After /sam /pari /upa, when meaning decorating, /kR gets {s(uT)}.

908 /zIG to !zay before /kGit !y.

1222 /gam "go"

1274 List of [@preverb]s.

1298 /prAdi are !pra etc.

(/AG) (/AG)

AG "coming"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1280

The preverb A(G) expresses movement towards here --

gacchati "goes"

Agacchati "comes"

patanty ulkAH "meteors are falling"

Apatanty ulkAH "meteors are falling towards us"

In some cases, AG has no meaning --

rohati "climbs"

Arohati "climbs"

Rule aT;ku;pv;AG;nu mentions this AG so as to remind us that Natvam can skip it over when it is before a Nopadeza root --

pari + AG + naddha ikoyaNaci paryA + naddha Natvam paryANaddha-

310 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 50 -- popularity 25

(/anu) (/anu)

anu "after"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1281

When anu is a preverb it can mean "after" in the sense of "following" --

gacchati "goes"

anugacchati "goes after, follows"

dravati "runs"

anudravati "runs after, chases"

anuplavate "jumps after, swims after, sails after"

With bhU, it makes "experience" --

bhavati "is there"

anubhavati "experiences"

226 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 70 -- popularity 6

163 [@unchanging compound]s are made by the next rules.

648 (@Nexttolast of) /zAs to !i before /aG or @consonant /kGit affix.

1047 !syand to !S after /anu /vi /pari /abhi /ni (optionally), if meaning nonliving beings

1274 List of [@preverb]s.

1282 /ava "down"

1298 /prAdi are !pra etc.

(/ava) (/ava)

ava "down"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1282

ava usually means "downward" --

rohati "climbs"

avarohati "climbs down, descends"

But joined to verbs meaning "go", it makes "understand" --

gacchati "goes"

avagacchati "understands"

eti "goes"

avaiti "understands"

To mean "undergo" in the sense of "experience (duress etc.)", those won't work. Use anu + bhU instead.

236 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 90 -- popularity 7

149 A @preverb (or /upasarga) is a /prAdi joined by sense to an action.

746 /ktvA to {(l)ya(p)} in a [/naJ]-less @compound.

915 !do !so !mA /sthA to !i before /kit !t.

1045 (!stambh to !S) after /ava when meaning 'supporting' or 'nearness'.

1274 List of [@preverb]s.

1286 /ni "down"

1298 /prAdi are !pra etc.

(/dus) (/du)

dus means bad, hard to do, or evilmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1283

This prAdi is only used as a former. It is never a preverb.

It is often found in front of action nouns with the meaning of "hard to do" --

dus + labh + khaldurlabhaH "hard to get"

duSkara- "hard to do"

dusHsaha "hard to endure"

duSprApa "hard to get"

(Notice that dus sometimes sounds like duS before p ph k kh. See id;ud-upa)

It can also be compounded in front of any noun to mean "bad" or "evil" --

durlAbhaH "a bad acquisition"

durmati- "weak-minded; evil-minded"

Those can get the su' that means "very" --

sudurlabhaH "very hard to get"

See also ku', su'.

410 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 111 -- popularity 6

112 /pra !yuj and /upa !yuj (get @bent).

361 (Replace /khal with) /yuc after !A.

(/ku') (/ku')

ku' means evil or badmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1284

This prAdi is only used as a former. It is never a preverb.

kupuruSa- "bad man"

kuputra- "wicked son"

See also su', dus.

88 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 142 -- popularity 2

(/su') (/su')

su' means good, very, or easilymmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1285

This prAdi is only used as a former. It is never a preverb.

Don't confuse it with the su affix.

sukRta- "well done"

sumahat- "very big"

sulabha- "easy to get"

See also ku', dus.

130 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 152 -- popularity 6

360 Add /khal to a root compounded after /ISad /dus /su' when they mean hardly or easily.

361 (Replace /khal with) /yuc after !A.

846 But if there is a @wordfinal !y !v before that first vowel, add !ai !au before the !y !v instead.

(/ni) (/ni)

ni "down"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1286

The preverb ni may mean "down" --

patati "flies"

nipatati "flies down"

utpatati "flies up" (see ud)

Notice that ava too means "down".

96 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 186 -- popularity 8

295 Preverbless {limpa}, {vinda}, {dhAri}, {pAri}, {vedi}, {udeji}, {ceti}, {sAti}, {sAhi} get !za.

553 @Short gets /tuk before /pit /kRt.

1039 (/kric works only) when a @Sa-root or an @affix is involved.

1046 Some roots get /Satvam after /pari /ni /vi

1047 !syand to !S after /anu /vi /pari /abhi /ni (optionally), if meaning nonliving beings

1274 List of [@preverb]s.

1298 /prAdi are !pra etc.

(/pari) (/pari)

pari "around"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1287

The preverb pari means "around" --

kUpaGM gacchati "goes to the well"

kUpamM parigacchati "goes around the well"

85 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 190 -- popularity 12

(/pra) (/pra)

pra "pre-"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1288

The preverb pra may mean --

in front, forward

start to

previously, pre-


But, in the epics, it often appears to be used as filler.

Back to list of preverbs.

121 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 211 -- popularity 24

(/prati) (/prat)

prati "towards; against"mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1289

prati as a preverb means --


pratigacchati "goes towards"

backwards, against, counter-, back --

pratigacchati "goes back"

vijitya gAz ca prati-yAtu pArthaH "let him take the cows and go back"

pratihanti "he counterstrikes"

prativadati "speaks back, answers"

before a noun it can mean --


pratyac- "western" (has ac''')


pratiloma "against the hair"

every (only before time words)

pratidinam "every day"

329 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 220 -- popularity 5

163 [@unchanging compound]s are made by the next rules.

626 (Lengthen vowel) before {c(u)}.

1044 /sad to !S (after !i !u of a @preverb) except /prati.

1297 About the [@postposition]s

1298 /prAdi are !pra etc.

(/sam) (/sam)

sammmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1290

The preverb sam sometimes means "coming together", sometimes "all together" --

girim agacchan "they went to the mountain (each one on its own)"

giriM samagacchan "they went to the mountain (together); they gathered at the mountain"

It can mean also "completely", like the "up" in English "eat up" --

bhakSayatv ekaH "only one person should eat this"

samM-bhakSayatv ekaH "only one person should eat this up"

In the epics, sam often appears to be just filler. I mean to say, verbs such as samagacchat often appear to mean exactly the same thing as agacchat "came".

Back to list of preverbs.

452 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 252 -- popularity 9

105 After /sam, roots /gam /Rcch /pracch !svar !R !zru !vid /dRz (get @bent if @objectless).

112 /pra !yuj and /upa !yuj (get @bent).

598 After /sam /pari /upa, when meaning decorating, /kR gets {s(uT)}.

620 /ap- to !I after /dvi-, !antar, [@preverb]s.

1005 /sam to ( /ru ) before {s(uT)}.

1020 Replace /sam with !m before !rAj plus /kvip.

1046 Some roots get /Satvam after /pari /ni /vi

1298 /prAdi are !pra etc.

(/ud) (/ud)

udmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1291

The preverb ud means "up" --

patati "flies"

utpatati "flies up, takes off"

nipatati "flies down, lands" (see ni)

When not a preverb, it can mean "up" or "north".

"Up" can mean "north" because when you are "oriented", that is, looking to the Orient (rising sun), the himAlaya, which is the highest part of the country, falls to your left.

244 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 271 -- popularity 9

623 !a !A of !sah !vah to !o (before disappeared !Dh).

647 !n of /aJcu stays when it means worshipping

800 (/ktvA /kta /ktavatu get /iT) after /aJcu that means 'honoring'.

985 (/niSThA to !n) after /odit roots.

1079 After /ud, replace !sthA !stambh with !t

1082 (After consonant), optionally delete a /jhar before a @similar /jhar.

1274 List of [@preverb]s.

1298 /prAdi are !pra etc.

(/vi) (/vi)

vimmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1292

The preverb vi means "away" --

krINAti he buys

vikrINAti he sells

stIrNa- "spread"

vistIrNa- "spread far and wide"

dravanti "they run"

vidravanti "they run away in all directions"

IkSate "he looks"

vIkSate "he looks all around, he commands a view of"

trasta- "scared"

vi-trasta- "scared out of his wits, terrified, panicked"

zruta- "heard about"

vi-zruta- "heard about all over, famous, renowned"

In the epics, vi is often just to be ignored.

As a former before a noun, vi means "lacking, deprived of" --

vi-ratha- "deprived of his car"

vi-varNa- "discolored"

vi-yoga- "disconnection"

vi-zoka- "sorrowless"

451 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 283 -- popularity 19

(/nis) (/nis)

some prefixesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1293

nis means "without" --

nis + abhra- sasaju nirabhra- "cloudless"

niS becomes niS before k kh p ph --

nis + kaNTha + kapniSkaNTaka- "thornless"

niSphala- "fruitless, resultless, failed"

129 letters. -- 9800preverbs.bse 312 -- popularity 5

89 Shorten /go- and [/GI]-[/Ap]-enders when they are @latter and @subordinate.

112 /pra !yuj and /upa !yuj (get @bent).

918 After a @vowel @preverb, (replace !dA of a /ghu) with !t (before /kit !t).

1032 Non-@affix !iH !uH to (!S before /ku /pu).

1298 /prAdi are !pra etc.

special words ←

chunk 63: preverbs

→ DEFINITIONS --------------------------------------------------