84040 stozz, STunA, doublings ←

chunk 52: FAKE RULES --------------------------------

→ the sup groups

Rules that mention particular roots work only before verb affixes, not before noun affixes.
Git tenses do not pass G on.
First ending by default.
L works like R.
Owner gets sixth.
yaGluks are lukclass.


Rules that mention particular roots work only before verb affixes, not before noun affixes.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1035

This is a vArttika, svarUpagrahaNe tat-pratyaye kAryam.


Rule sRjidRzo mentions the roots sRj and dRz, therefore only verb affixes make it work.

Rule mRjervRddhiH won't work on kaMsa-parimRDbhiH.


Rule acoJNiti does not mention any roots. Therefore it is triggered by root affixes and by noun affixes too.


Git tenses do not pass G on.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1036

Exception to sthAnivad.

sthAnivad says that when we replace anything that has G label with another thing, the replacement will also have G label. This exception states that the replacements of liG laG lRG luG never inherit their G label.

Example. Here --

dviS + laGdviS + tip luGlaG a + dviS + tipa + dviS + t''' puganta adveSt → .. → adveT "he hated"

the tip affix replaced laG, but didn't get the G label of laG.


first ending by default.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1037

"If no rule says which of the seven case groups of affixes must be used, the we must use first".

Rule GyApprA says that all nounbases always get a sup added after them, and if they are feminine, then maybe they a feminine affix before getting the sup. However that rule does not say WHICH of the twenty-one affixes it gets.

In a case like "I see the two lions", if I use the verb pazyAmi, then whatever nounbase means lion must get a second affix, that is, one of am W zas, because rule karmaNidvi says so. Then, of these three, we must use W, because dvyeka says so.

Now, in mAM siMhau pazyataH "the two lions see me", no rule says what case the lions get. When no rule says anything, we must use first. So it will be one of su W jas. In fact it willbe W, because there are two lions.

If I want to say "the two lions are being seen", with dRzyete, again there is no rule saying what is the case affix added after the lion nounbase. So we again must use first.


L works like R.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1038

The only difference between L and R is --

when saying R, the tongue tip taps the palate for a moment at the same place as for r,

but when saying L, the contact point is at the teeth.

Other than that, grammar rules that affect R affect L as well, even though pANini didn't mention L in them.

Example --

Rule uraNra says --

"rules that replace R with aN'' will add r after the replacement"

Thanks to the principle " L works like R ", uraNra works on L too, this way --

"rules that replace L with aN'' will add l after the replacement"

Example --

kLp + zap + te''' hardsoft kalpate


Owner gets sixth.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1039

The sixth endings are used on the word that means the owner of something else. The something else can have any ending.

For instance, adding Gas after rAma-, like this --

rAma- + Gas TAGasi rAmasya

we get rAmasya, that means either "of rAma" or "rAma has".

Examples --

rAmasya gAvaH "rAma's cows"

rAmasya gAvaH "rAma has cows"

viprANAGM gAvaH "priests have cows"

Qq viprANAM gAH pazyAmi "I see the priests' cows"

This rule is not necessary, as the use of the sixth to mean the possessor is allowed by SaSThIzeSe. Yet I made it up anyway because it is in my list of lessons. For some reason that I can't guess at, all of my students get the idea that rAmasya means "rAma's" the first time I tell them, but the idea that rAmasya can also mean "rAma has" takes months to sink in, and meanwhile they keep mistranslating expressions that mean "I have a chariot" as "my chariot". Rule-of-thumb: if a sentence appears to have no verb, add "is", "there is", or, if there is a word with sixth, add "has" after the translation of that word.


yaGluks are lukclass.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1040

This is a vArttika to vaca::um. Exception to kartarizap -- the yaGluk roots get no zap.

See examples at yaGocica, yaGovA.

84040 stozz, STunA, doublings ←

chunk 52: FAKE RULES --------------------------------

→ the sup groups