72114 replacements before soft ←

chunk 42: 73050 more about taddhita

→ 73101 some sup-changing rules

73050 Th to ik . ThasyekaH
73052 c j to ku before ghit and Nyat cajoHkughiNNyatoH
73054 h of han before JNit and n. hohanterJNinneSu
73055 after stammer. abhyAsAcca
73057 ji before san and liT. sanliTorjeH
73058 ci to optionally . vibhASAceH
73067 vac to only when meaning speech. vacozabdasaJjJAyAm
73077 iS gam yam to ch before zit. iSugamiyamAJchaH
73078 pA to piba, ghrA to jighra, dhmA to dhama, sthA to tiSTha, mnA to mana, dAN to yaccha, dRz to pazya, R to Rccha, sR to dhau, zad to zIya, sad to sIda. pAghrAdhmAsthAmnAdANdRzyarttisarttizadasadAmpibajighradhamatiSThamanayacchapazyarcchadhauzIyasIdAH
73079 jJA and jan to jA before zit. jJAjanorjA
73080 Shorten pUclass . pvAdInAMhrasvaH
73082 mid to guNa . miderguNaH
73083 ik to before laG jus. jusica
73084 before hard and soft. sArvadhAtukArdhadhAtukayoH
73085 Replace jAgR unless before vi ciN Nal Git. jAgroviciNNalGitsu
73086 Replace nexttolast short ik . pugantalaghUpadhasyaca
73087 Stammered doesn't before vowel pit hard. nAbhyastasyAcipitisArvadhAtuke
73088 bhU sU get no hardsoft before hard tiG. bhUsuvostiGi
73089 Replace last u of a lukclass with au before consonant . utovRddhirlukihali
73092 tRnah gets im . tRNaha::im
73093 gets IT after brU. bruvaIT
73094 optionally after yaGluk. yaGovA
73096 t''' s''' after asti and sic. astisicopRkte
73100 after ad. adassarveSAm




(ThasyekaH) (!Th)

Thasy' .ekaH ONPANINI 73050
Th to ik (at the start of a taddhita).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 838

The affixes Thak and ThaJ always turn into ika(k) and ika(J).

Example --

akSa + Thak → * akSa + ika (k) kitica AkSa + ika yasyetica AkSika- "dicer, gambler"

KAZIKA aGgasya nimittaM yaH ThaH, kazca aGgasya nimittam, pratyayaH, tasya pratyayaThasya ikaH ityayam Adezo bhavati. prAg vahateS Thak AkSikaH. zAlAkikaH. lavaNAT ThaJ 44052 lAvaNikaH. ThagAdiSu yadi varNamAtraM pratyayaH, uccAraNArtho 'kAraH, tadA iha api akAra uccAraNArthaH, varnamAtraM tu sthAnitvena upAdIyate. saGghAtagrahaNe tu pratyaye 'tra api saGghAtagrahaNam eva. tatra kaNeSThaH kaNThaH ityevam AdInAm uNAdInAm uNAdayo bahulam 33001 iti na bhavati. mathitaM paNyam asya mAthitikaH ityatra tu yasyeti ca iti lope kRte isusuktAntAt kaH 73051 iti sthAnivadbhAvAdikasya kAdezaH prApnoti, sannipAtalakSaNo vidhiranimittaM tadvighAtasya iti na bhavati. yasyeti ca iti lopasya sthAnivadbhAvAdvA. pUrvasmAd api hi vidhau sthAnivadbhAvaH.

94 letters. -- 73.bse 281 -- popularity 11




(cajoHkughi) (!caj)

ca;joH ku ghiN;NyatoH ONPANINI 73052
c j to ku before ghit and Nyatmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 839

The ghit meant here are the nounbases made with ghit affixes. The most common such affix is ghaJ, that makes masculine action nouns such as --

pac + ghaJ + su → * pak + ghaJ + s acoJNiti pAk + a + spAkas "cooking, cuisine"

tyaj + ghaJ + su → * tyAgaH "abandonment"

raJj + ghaJ + suraj + ghaJ + s ata::upa rAj + a + s → * rAgaH "passion"

Examples with Nyat --

mRj + Nyat → * mRg + ya mRjervRddhiH mArgya- "to be cleansed"

vac + Nyat → * vak + NyatvAkya- n "speech"

Careful. This rule cajoHku and coHkuH turn cu into ku; rule kuhozcuH turns ku into cu. Don't mix those up.

KAZIKA cakArajakArayoH kavargAdezo bhavati ghiti Nyati ca pratyaye parataH. ghiti pAkaH. tyAgaH. rAgaH. Nyati pAkyam. vAkyam. rekyam.

Note. This rule works on the vAkya- meaning "speech", but, because of the exception vacozabda, does not work on the vAcya- meaning "it has to be said ", that also has Nyat --

na cAzuzrUSave vAcyam "don't tell it to the guy that doesn't want to hear"

559 letters. -- 73.bse 305 -- popularity 8

46 Replace with the @most-alike.

328 !bhaJj !bhAs !mid get {(gh)ura(c)}.




(hohanterJNi) (!hoh)

ho hanter JNin@;neSu ONPANINI 73054
h of han (to gh) before JNit and n.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 840

Examples before the JNit affixes Nic and ghaJ --

han + Nic + laT tip → * ghan + Nic + ti hanasto ghat + Nic + ti ata_upa ghAt + Nic + ti kartarizap ghAt + i + zap + tip hardsoft ghAte + tip ecoya ghAtayati "makes (them) kill"

han + ghaJ (allowed by bhAve) → * ghan + ghaJ ata::upa ghAn + a hanasto ghAta- "a hit, a stroke, a killing"

Examples with h before n. The h of han is right before n when the a disappears by either gamahana or alloponaH --

han + laT jhihan + anti''' gamahana hn + anti → * ghnanti "they kill"

vRtrahan- + zas alloponaH vRtrahn- + zas → * vRtraghnas "soldiers"

In the last example, rule ekAjutta did not work because hn is not an ekAc. But when this rule does not work, ekAjutta might work --

vRtrahan- + jas ekAjutta vRtrahaNas "soldiers"

See also next rule, abhyAsAcca.

KAZIKA hanteH ha-kArasya kavarg'-Adezo bhavati Jiti Niti pratyaye parataH nakAre ca. ghAtayati. ghAtakaH. sAbhughAtI. ghAtaMghAtam. ghAto vartate. nakAre ghnanti. ghnantu. aghnan. haH iti kim? alo 'ntyasya mA bhUt. hanteH iti kim? prahAraH. prahArakaH. JNitpratyayo hanter vizeSaNam, nakAro hakArasya, nakAre 'nantarasya hantihakArasya iti. taccAnantarya zrutikRtaM sannipAtakRtam AzrIyate. sthAnivadbhAvazAstrakRtaM tu yadanAnantaryaM tadavighAtakam, vacanasAmarthyAt. yadyapi sarvair eva JNinnair hantihakAro viziSyate tathApi yena nAvyavadhAnaM tena vyavahite 'pi vacanaprAmANyAtiti JNiti dhAtvavayavena vyavahite 'pi sati bhavati. iha tu na bhavati, hananam icchati hananIyati, hananIyater Nvul hananIyakaH iti.

498 letters. -- 73.bse 343 -- popularity 9

641 After vowelenders, /han, /grah and /dRz, the /sya /sic /sIyuT /tAs that are before /akartari get optionally an /iT that behaves like /ciN.

1201 /han means "kill".

1202 /han before /tiG

1203 rootnoun /han-

1683 conjugation of /han




(abhyAsAcca) (!abhyAsA)

abhyAsAc ca ONPANINI 73055
(han to gh) after stammer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 841

As in --

han + liT tiphan + Nal ata::upa hAn + a liTidhA hAhAna hrasvaH hahAna kuhozcuH jahAna → * jaghAna "he killed"

han + liT jhihan + us → .. → jahanus ( like above ) gamahana jahnus → * jaghnus "they killed"

has + NaljahAsa "he laughed"

130 letters. -- 73.bse 377 -- popularity 2

840 !h of !han (to !gh) before /JNit and !n.

1565 examples of reduplication before /san




(sanliTorjeH) (!sanl)

san;liTor jeH ONPANINI 73057
ji (to gi) before san and liT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 842

Example with ji before san --

ji + san + zatR + Am → * gi + sa + at + Am sanyaGoH jigi + sa + at + Am ajjhana jigIsa + at + Am → .. → jigIsatAm kric jigISatAm "for those that want to win"

As in --

nItir asmi jigISatAm "for those that want to win, I'm strategy"

Example with ji before a liT --

ji + liTji + Nal → * gi + Nal acoJNiti gai + a liTidhA gai + gai + a hrasvaH gi + gai + a kuhozcuH ji + gai + a ecoya jigAya "he won"

Only san and liT trigger this rule, not yaG --

ji + yaG + laT ta → .. → jejIyate "keeps winning"

This rule only works on the ji root that means "win", and not on the ji made by stretching jyA --

jyA + liT jhi grahijyA ji + jhi liTidhA ji + ji + jhi Nalatusus jiji + us eranekA jijyus "they became old"

KAZIKA sani liTi ca pratyaye jeH aGgasya yo 'bhyAsaH tasmAd uttarasya kavarg´Adezo bhavati. jigISati. jigAya. san-liToH iti kim? jejIyate. jinAteH samprasAraNe kRte yadyapi jirbhavati, tathApi lAkSaNikatvAt tasya grahaNaM na bhavati, jijyatuH, jijyuH ityeva bhavati.

This rule is traditionally spelled sanliTorjeH with nl, but of course chanting it as sal~liTorjeH, with torli, is way easier.

509 letters. -- 73.bse 390 -- popularity 1




(vibhASAceH) (!vibhASAc)

vibhASA ceH ONPANINI 73058
ci to ( ku) optionally (after stammer of san liT).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 843

With san --

cicISati → * cikISati "he wants to pile up"

With liT --

cikAya → * cicAya "he piled up"

Won't work with yaG --

cecIyate "keeps piling up, hoards"

KAZIKA cinoteH aGgasya sanliTor abhyAsAd uttarasya vibhASA ka-varg'-Adezo bhavati. cicISati cikISati. cikAya, cicAya. sanliToH ity eva, cecIyate.

109 letters. -- 73.bse 410 -- popularity 1

311 The /veda optionally replaces @bent /liT with /kAnac




(vacozabda) (!vaco)

vaco '-zabda-saMjJAyAm ONPANINI 73067
vac to (k before Nyat) only when meaning speech.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 844

Exception to cajoHku.

My translation can be reworded into --

" vAkyam means 'words', but vAcyam means 'it should be said' "

Only example --

vac + Nyat → * vAcya- "that should be said"

Conterexample --

vac + Nyat cajoHku vAkya- "speech"

As in --

viSIdantam idaM vAkyam uvAca madhusUdanaH "kRSNa said these words to arjuna"

na cAzuzrUSave vAcyam "and it should not be told to one that does not want to hear"

KAZIKA cinoteH aGgasya san;liTor abhyAsAd uttarasya vibhASA kavarg'-Adezo bhavati. cicISati cikISati. cikAya, cicAya. sanliToH ity eva, cecIyate.

299 letters. -- 73.bse 425 -- popularity 2




(iSugami) (/icc)

iSu;gami;yamAM chaH ONPANINI 73077
iS gam yam to ch before zit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 845

There are exactly three examples --

gam + zap → * gach + zap checa gacch + zapgaccha

iS + za → * ich + za checa iccha

yam + zap → * yach + zap checa yaccha

Example sentences --

gRhaGM gacchati "goes home"

bhoktum icchati "wants to eat, is hungry"

157 letters. -- 73.bse 509 -- popularity 8

379 Replace /loT as if it were /laG.

862 Lengthen "!a" before @hard !v !m.

1040 /stu to !zcu near !zcu.




(pAghrAdhmAsthA) (/paz)

pA;ghrA;dhmA; sthA;mnA;dAN; dRzy;artti;sartti; zada;sadAm piba;jighra;dhama; tiSTha;mana;yaccha; pazyarccha;dhau; zIya;sIdAH ONPANINI 73078
(Before zit,) pA to piba, ghrA to jighra, dhmA to dhama, sthA to tiSTha, mnA to mana, dAN to yaccha, dRz to pazya, R to Rccha, sR to dhau, zad to zIya, sad to sIda.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 846

As in --

dRz + zap + laT tip → * pazya + a + ti atoguNe pazyati "sees"

sthA + zap + loT sip → * tiSTha + a + si atoguNe tiSTha + sitiSTha + hi''' atoheH tiSTha "wait!"

All examples --

pA + laT tip → .. → pibati "drinks"

ghrA + laT tip → .. → jighrati "smells"

dhmA + laT tip → .. → dhamati "blows"

sthA + laT tip → .. → tiSThati "stands"

mnA + laT tip → .. → manati "thinks" (same as manyate "thinks")

dAN + laT tip → .. → yacchati "gives"

dRz + laT tip → .. → pazyati "sees"

R + laT tip → .. → Rcchati "goes, rises"

sR + laT tip → .. → dhAvati "runs"

zad + laT tip → .. → zIyate "decays"

sad + laT tip → .. → sIdati "sits"

Only the zapclass pA that means "drink" is affected by this rule; the lukclass pA meaning "protect" stays unchanged --

pA ( drink ) + laT tippA + zap + tip → * piba + zap + tip atoguNe pibati "drinks"

pA ( protect ) + laT tippAti "protects"

When sR has its ordinary meaning of "go, move" this rule does not work --

sR + laT tipsR + zap + ti hardsoft sarati "moves, goes, flows"

anusarati "follows"

It only gets dhau replacement when it means moving fast.

dhAvati "runs"

anudhAvati "runs after"

The dAN is the zapclass root ad 01.1079 dA dAN dAne (to give). The yacchati in pattramM puSpamM phalanM toyaM yo me bhaktyA prayacchati is supposed to come from this root, as opposed to another yacchati, from root yam, that means "holds, bears, supports".

The zad of this rule includes the two zadL roots 01.0991 and 06.0164, that are zapclass and zaclass respectively.

KAZIKA pA ghrA dhmA sthA mnA dAN dRzi arti sarti zada sada ity eteSAM piba jighra dhama tiSTha mana yaccha pazya Rccha dhau zIya sIda ity eta AdezA bhavanti ziti parataH. pA pibati. ghrA jighrati. dhmA dhamati. sthA tiSThati. mnA manati. dAN yacchati. dRzi pazyati. arti Rcchati. sarti dhAvati. zada zIyate. sada sIdati. pibater laghUpadhaguNaH prApnoti, saH aGgavRtte punar vRttAvavidhirniSThitasya iti na bhavati. atha vA akArAnto 'yam AdezaH AdyudAtto nipAtyate. sartervegitAyAM gatau dhAvAdezam icchanti. anyatra sarati, anusarati ityeva bhavati.

968 letters. -- 73.bse 520 -- popularity 8

1019 (/kric works only) when a @Sa-root or an @affix is involved.

1146 /dru "run"

1188 /sad "sit"

1189 /dRz "see"

1196 /pAti "protects" /pibati "drinks".




(jJAjanorjA) (!jJAj)

jJA;janor jA ONPANINI 73079
jJA and jan to jA before zit.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 847

These roots are 09.0043 jJA avabodhane and 04.0044 jan janI~ prAdurbhAve.

Examples --

jJA + laT tipjJA + znA + ti → * jAnAti "knows"

jan + laT tajan + te'''jan + zyan + te → * jAyate "appears"

as in romaharSaz ca jAyate "and I get the goosebumps"

167 letters. -- 73B.bse 1 -- popularity 2

108 (@Bent) after !jJA when meaning 'denying'.

1164 /jJA "know"




(pvAdInAMhra) (@pu)

pv..-AdInAM hrasvaH ONPANINI 73080
shorten puclass (before zit).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 848

Examples --

pU + laT tippU + znA + tip → * punAti "cleans"

lU + tip → .. → lunAti "reaps"

pRR + laT tippRR + znA + tip → * pr + nA + ti Natvam pRNAti "fills"

The puclass roots are --

pUJ lUJ stRRJ kRRJ

vRRJ dhUJ zRR pRR

vRR bhRR mRR jRR

jhRR ghRR nRR dhvRR

kRR RR gRR jyA

rI lI vlI plI

183 letters. -- 73B.bse 23 -- popularity 4

966 After @lUclass (!t of /niSThA and /ktin to !n).

1566 /gRhNA, /punA, /jinA, /puSNA, /krINA




(miderguNaH) (!mid)

mider guNaH ONPANINI 73082
mid to guNa (before zit).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 849

Example --

mid + laTmid + zyan + tip → * medyati "grows fat"

KAZIKA mider aGgasya iko guNo bhavati ziti pratyaye parataH. medyati, medyataH, medyanti. ziti ityeva, midyate.

38 letters. -- 73B.bse 58 -- popularity 2

17 /guNa and /vRddhi replace /ik.




(jusica) (!ju)

jusi ca ONPANINI 73083
ik to ( guNa) before laG jus.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 850

This jus is the replacement of laG jhi made by sijabhyasta after a stammered.

This rule is necessary because jhi is Git by hard apit is Git , so it won't make hardsoft work.

Examples with the stammered juhu and bibhI --

ajuhu + laG jhi → * ajuho + us ecoya ajuhavus "they poured"

abibhI + laG jhi → * abibhe + us ecoya abibhayus "they feared"

This rule works only on the laG jus coming from sijabhya, and not on the liG jus made by jherjus --

juhu- + liG jhi jherjus juhu + jusjuhu + yus'''juhuyus "they would pour"

KAZIKA jusi ca pratyaye parataH igantasya aGgasya guNo bhavati. ajuhavuH. abibhayuH. abibharuH. atha cinuyuH, sunuyuH ityatra kasmAn na bhavati? atra hi dve Gittve, sArvadhAtukAzrayam, yAsuDAzrayaM ca. tatra na aprApte sArvadhAtukAzrayaGittvanimitte pratiSedhe jusi guNaH ArabhyamANaH tam eva bAdhate. yAsuDAzrayaGittvanimittaM tu na bAdhate, tatra hi prApte ca aprApte ca Arabhyate iti.

This rule affects the ik only because ikoguNavRddhI says so.

421 letters. -- 73B.bse 76 -- popularity 3




(@hardsoft) (@hards)

sArvadhAtuk'-ArdhadhAtukayoH ONPANINI 73084
( ik to guNa) before hard and soft.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 851

TURTLETURTLETURTLE

... too long ... needs slow reread

In the classroom we ended up nicknaming this rule as "the hardsoft rule", as its true name is sort of clumsy.

All root affixes turn any ik that is just before them into guNa. Even the long ik.

Examples before the soft affixes tumun u thal --

nI + tumun → * netum "to lead"

nI + liT sipnI + thal → * ne + thal liTidhA ninetha "I'm told you led"

nI + liT sipnI + thalnI + ithal → * ne + ithal liTidhA nine + itha ecoya ninayitha "I'm told you led"

kR + u + tip → * karu- + tip → * karoti "makes, does"

Examples before the hards tip and zap --

iN' + laT tipeti "goes"

karu- + tip → * kar + o + tipkaroti "makes"

nI + zap + tip → * ne + zap + tip ecoya nay + zap + tipnayati "leads"

bhU + zap + jhi → * bho + zap + jhibho + zap + anti''' → .. → bhavanti "they are"

tRR + zap + sip → * tar + zap + siptarasi "you cross"

If you see that this rule did not work it means that some exception came in the way.

The exception will be kGitica almost always --

In nIta- (from nI + kta) this rule did not work. That's because kta is kit.

Same in cakRma (from kR + ma). That's because ma is kit (rule asaMyogAlliTkit says so).

KAZIKA sArvadhAtuke ArdhadhAtuke ca pratyaye parataH igantasya aGgasya guNo bhavati. tarati. nayati. bhavati. ArdhadhAtuke kartA. cetA. stotA. sArvadhAtukArdhadhAtukayoH iti kim? agnitvam. agnikAmyati. yadi hi pratyaye saGi iti vA ucyeta, iha api syAt.

I must confess that I have an awful tendency to type "because of puganta" when I mean "because of hardsoft". So please check puganta rule, just in case I mistyped the link that brought you here.

913 letters. -- 73B.bse 149 -- popularity 107




(jAgrovici) (!jA)

jAgro '-vi;ciN;Nal;Gitsu ONPANINI 73085
Replace jAgR (with guNa) unless before vi ciN Nal Git.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 852

Exception to hardsoft above, and to all other rules that replace with guNa and vRddhi ( puganta, acoJNiti, etc). The root jAgR becomes jAgar before most affixes, kGit or not kGit. For instance, in --

jAgR + Nic + laT tip → * jAgar + i + zap + tipjAgarayati "makes (him) wake up"

rule acoJNiti did not work.

However, before vi, ciN, Nal, and Git affixes, the ordinary rules still apply, so R is not replaced with ar in these --

jAgR + ciN acoJNiti jAgAr + i luGlaG ajAgAri "he was woken up"

jAgR + Nal acoJNiti jAgAr + Nal liTidhA jajAgAra "he woke up"

nor here, as tas is Git because hard apit is Git --

jAgR + laT tasjAgRtas "both wake up"

KAZIKA jAgu ityetasya aGgasya guNo bhavati aviciNNalGitsu parataH. jAgarayati. jAgarakaH. sAdhujAgarI. jAgaraMjAgaram. jAgaro vartate. jAgaritaH. jAgaritavAn. vRRddhiviSaye pratiSedhaviSaye ca yathA syAtiti jAgarterayaM guNaH Arabhyate. tasmin kRte yA ata upadhAyAH 72116 vRddhiH prApnoti sA na bhavati. yadi hi syAtanarthaka eva guNaH syAt, ciNNalozca pratiSedhavacanam anarthakam. aviciNNalGitsu iti kim? jRRzRRstRrjAgRbhyaH kvin jAgRviH. ciN ajAgAri. Nal jajAgAra. Git jAgRtaH. jAgRthaH. vi iti kecidikAram uccAraNArthaM varNayanti, kvasAvapi vakArAdau guNo na bhavati. jajAgRvAn. ajAgaruH, ahaM jajAgara ityatra pratiSedhaH prApnoti? na, apratiSedhAt. aviciNNalGitsu iti paryudAso 'yam, athavA jAgraH iti praptirasAvAnantaryAd viciNNalGitsu pratiSidhyate. yA tu jusi ca 73083, sArvadhAtukArdhadhAtukayoH 73084 iti ca prAptiH , sA na pratiSidhyate.

441 letters. -- 73B.bse 237 -- popularity 1




(pugantala) (!pug)

pug-anta;lagh%Upadhasya ca ONPANINI 73086
Replace nexttolast short ik (with guNa before hard and soft).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 853

This rule has two parts --

(1) Replace the nexttolast i u R L of a root with e o ar al before root affixes.

(please see How to replace with guNa or vRddhi. )

(2) In puk roots, replace I U too with e o.

Examples of (1) --

dviS + mip → * dveSmi "I hate"

kSip + tumun → * kSeptum "to throw"

zuc + zap + tip → * zocati "is sad, is depressed"

vRt + zap + te''' → * vartate "spins, turns out"

kLp + zap + te''' → * kalpate "it befits; it is prepared, ready"

Examples of (2) --

The puk roots to which his rule may apply are hrIp vlIp rIp knUp, formed by arttihrI.

vlI + Nic artti vlIp + i → * vlepi "make others fall"

knUy + Nic artti knUyp + i lopovyo knUp + i → * knopi "wetten"

By kGitica, this rule won't work before kGit affixes. That's why before the kit affix kta, and before the Git affix za, kSip does not turn into kSep --

kSip + ktakSipta- "thrown"

kSip + za + laT tip sArvadhAtukamapit kSip + (z)a(G) + tipkSipati "throws"

KAZIKA pugantasya aGgasya laghUpadhasya ca sArvadhAtukArdhadhAtukayor guNo bhavati. pugantasya vlepayati. hrepayati. knopayati. laghUpadhasya bhedanam. chedanam. bhettA. chettA. pratyayAderaGgAvayavasya ca halorAnantarye sati lag hUpadhaguNo na vyAvartyate iti jJApitam etat knusanoH kitkaraNena, trasigRdhidhRSikSipeH knuH 32140, halantAc ca 12010 iti. saMyoge gurusaMjJAyAM guNo bhettur na sidhyati. vidhyapekSaM laghozca asau kathaM kuNDir na duSyati. dhAtonumaH kathaM raJjeH syandizranthyor nipAtanAt. anaGlopazidIrghatve vidhyapekSe na sidhyataH. abhyastasya yadAhAci laGarthaM tatkRtaM bhavet. knusanor yatkRtaM kittvaM jJApakaM syAl laghor gaNe. upadhA ca atra igeva gRhyate, tato bhinatti iti guNo na bhavati. apare puki antaH pugantaH, laghvI upadhA laghUpadhA, pugantazca laghUpadhA ca pugantalaghUypadham iti sUtrArthaM varNayanti.

605 letters. -- 73C.bse 1 -- popularity 79




(nAbhyastasyA) (!nAbhyasta)

n' .Abhyastasy' .Aci piti sArvadhAtuke ONPANINI 73087
stammered doesn't (get puganta) before vowel pit hard.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 854

Exception to puganta. This rule is rarely needed, because very few roots are zluclass and end in ik + consonant. One such root is nij. Also, very few pit hard affixes start with a vowel; two such are Ani''' and am'''.

Examples --

nij + loT mip nijAMtrayA nenij + mipnenij + Ani'''nenijAni "let me clean"

nij + laG mipnij + am''' → .. → anenijam "I cleaned"

KAZIKA abhyastasaMjJakasya aGgasya laghUpadhasya ajAdau piti sArvadhAtuke guNo na bhavati. nenijAni. vevijAni. pariveviSANi. anenijam. avevijam. paryaveviSam. abhyastasya iti kim? vedAni. aci iti kim? nenekti. pidgrahaNam uttarArtham. sArvadhAtuke iti kim? nineja. labhUpadhasya ityeva, juhavAni. ajuhavam. bahulaM chandasIti vaktavyam. jujoSatiti yathA syAt. paspazAte. cAkazIti. vAvazIti. yaGluki chAndasamupadhAhrasvatvaM draSTavyam. paspazAte ityatra abhyAsahrasvatvaM ca. prakRtyantarANAM vA spazikazivazInAm etAni rUpANi.

256 letters. -- 73C.bse 119 -- popularity 1

2 next pages for chris




(bhUsuvosti) (!bhUs)

bhU;suvos tiGi ONPANINI 73088
bhU sU get no hardsoft before hard tiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 855

Examples with bhU --

bhU + luG tip luGlaG abhU + tipabhU + t'''abhUt "he was"

bhU + luG mip → .. → abhU + am''' bhuvovuglu abhUvam "I was"

This rule will not work before affixes such as zap, that are hard but not tiG --

bhU + laT tipbhU + zap + tip hardsoft bho + zap + tip ecoya bhavati "there is"

The sU root mentioned here is the lukclass 02.0025 "create living beings", that is bendy. Examples --

sU + loT iT'sU + ai''' aciznu suvai "I shall give birth"

suvAvahai

suvAmahai

The lukclass root sU 02.0036, same meaning but flatty, is unaffected by this rule --

sU + loT mipsU + Ani''' hardsoft so + Ani ecoya savAni "I shall give birth"

KAZIKA bhU sU ity etayoH tiGi sArvadhAtuke guNo na bhavati. abhUt. abhUH. abhUvam. suvai, suvAvahai, suvAmahai. sUter lug-vikaranasya idaM grahaNam. suvatisUyayor vikaraNena tiGo vyavadhAnam. vikaraNasyaiva Git-tvAd guNAbhAvaH siddhaH. tiGi iti kim? bhavati. sArvadhAtuke ity eva, vyatibhaviSISTa. atha bobhavIti iti yaGluki guNapratiSedhaH kasmAn@ na bhavati? jJApakAt, yadayaM bobhUtu iti guNAbhAvArthe nipAtanaM karoti.

410 letters. -- 73C.bse 153 -- popularity 1

216 /sic (to /luk) before @flat after !gAti /sthA /ghu !pA !bhU.




(utovRddhi) (!uto)

uto vRddhir luki hali ONPANINI 73089
Replace last u of a lukclass with au before consonant ( pit hard).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 856

Two such roots are stu "praise" and yu "bind, tie, attach". Examples --

stu + laT tipstauti "praises"

yu + laT tipyauti "binds"

With UrNu this rule is optional, so we may say either prorNauti or prorNoti.

KAZIKA sArvadhAtuke piti iti vartate. ukArAntasya aGgasya vRddhir bhavati luki sati halAdau piti sArvadhAtuke. yauti. yauSi. yaumi. nauti. nauSi. naumi. stauti. stauSi. staumi. utaH iti kim? eti. eSi. emi. luki iti kim? sunoti. sunoSi. sunomi. hali iti kim? yavAni. ravANi. piti ityeva, yutaH. rutaH. api stuyAd rAjAnam ityatra hi Gicca pinna bhavati iti pittvapratiSedhAd vRddherabhAvaH. na abhyastasya ityetadiha anuvartate, yoyoti, roroti ityevam Adyartham.

151 letters. -- 73C.bse 176 -- popularity 2

860 /t''' /s''' (get /IT) after /asti and /sic.

1168 /stu' "praise"




(tRNaha::im) (!tRN)

tRNaha:: im ONPANINI 73092
tRnah gets im (before consonant hard pit).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 857

The tRNah in the rule means tRnah, which is the result of combining tRh + znam, before it gets Natvam. The i(m) is a mitaugment. So, before consonant hard pit, this tRnah turns into tRNeh like this --

tRh + znamtRnah → * tRnah + imtRna + i + m AdguNaH tRneh Natvam tRNeh

Examples --

tRh + laT miptRh + znam + miptRnah + mip → * tRneh + mi Natvam tRNehmi "I crush, bruise"

tRh + laT sip → .. → tRnah + sip → * tRneh + sip SaDhoHkassi tRnekSi Natvam tRNekSi "you crush"

tRh + laT tip → .. → tRnah + tip → * tRneh + tip hoDhaH tRneDhti jhaSastatho tRneDhdhi STunA tRneDhDhi DhoDhelopaH tRneDhi Natvam tRNeDhi "he crushes"

tRh + laG sip → .. → atRnehs halGyA atRneh hoDhaH atRneDh jhalAJjazonte atRneD Natvam atRNeD beforepause atRNeT "you crushed"

KAZIKA tRNaha ity etasyAGgasya im-Agamo bhavati hali piti sArvadhAtuke. tRNeDhi. tRNekSi. tRNehmi. atRNeT. varNAzraye 'py atra pratyayalakSaNam iSyate. hali iti kim? tRNahAni. piti ityeva, tRNDhaH. tRNaha iti AgataznaMko gRhyate, znami kRte imAgamo yathA syAtiti.

This rule won't work before the hard pit that start with vowels --

tRh + laG miptRh + am''' → .. → atRNaham "I crushed"

tRh + loT mip → .. → tRNahAni "let me crush"

Nor before any apit --

tRh + laT jhi znam tRnah + jhi znasora tRnh + jhitRnh + anti''' Natvam tRNhanti "they crush"

tRh + laT tastRnah + tas znasora tRnhtas hoDhaH tRnDhtas jhaSastatho tRnDhdhas STunA tRnDhDhas DhoDhelopaH tRnDhas Natvam tRNDhas "both crush"

This rule, speaking very technically, should be tRnaha_im, but it is chanted with tRNaha for ease of pronunciation.

772 letters. -- 73C.bse 203 -- popularity 2




(bruvaIT) (!bruva)

bruva:: IT ONPANINI 73093
(Consonant pit) gets IT after brU.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 858

Careful here. This titaugment I(T) has long I, unlike the i(T) of svapiti, made by rudAdibhya.

Examples --

brU + laT tip → * brU + Itip hardsoft bro + Iti ecoya bravIti "says"

brU + laG tipbrU + t''' → * brU + It hardsoft bro + It luGlaG abro + It ecoya abravIt "said"

(Notice that the very common 1abravIt is a laG, not a luG. For the luG see bruvovaci.)

Similarly bravISi, bravImi.

KAZIKA vrU ityetasmAduttarasya halAdeH pitaH sArvadhAtukasya IDAgamo bhavati. bravIti. bravISi. bravImi. abravIt. hali ityeva, bravANi. piti ityeva, brUtaH.

This rule won't work on a vowel pit --

brU + laG mip luGlaG abrU + mipabrU + am''' aciznu abruvam "I said"

307 letters. -- 73C.bse 254 -- popularity 6

727 Optionally /tu''' and /hi''' to /tAtaG when wishing.

860 /t''' /s''' (get /IT) after /asti and /sic.

1470 coloncolon symbol




(yaGovA) (!yaG)

yaGo vA ONPANINI 73094
( consonant pit hard gets IT) optionally after yaGluk.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 859 yaGluk

As in --

lAlap + laT tip → * lAlapIti "prates senselessly"

roru + laT tip hardsoft roro + tip → * roro + Iti ecoya roravIti "roars loudly"

These did not get zap because of the vArttika yaGluks are lukclass . All other sanAdyanta roots get zap.

KAZIKA yaGaH uttarasya halAdeH pitaH sArvadhAtukasya IDAgamo bhavati vA. zAkuniko lAlapIti. dundubhir vAvadIti. tridhA baddho vRSabho roravIti maho devo martyAM A viveza. na ca bhavati. varvarti, carkarti cakram. halAdeH pitaH sArvadhAtukasya yaGantAdabhAvaH iti yaGlugantasya udAharaNam.

The original rule just says "after yaG", but I translated that as "after yaGluk" because this rule will never work after the yaG that are not yaGluk -- those do get zap, so they are always before a vowel.

324 letters. -- 73C.bse 287 -- popularity 5

926 /ik of @stammer to /guNa before /yaG or /yaGluk

928 (@stammer) that ends in !a of (/yaG /yaGluk) root that ends in !m gets {n(uk)}.




(astisico) (/It')

asti;sico 'pRkte ONPANINI 73096
t''' s''' (get IT) after asti and sic.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 860 luG

"Gets IT" means that an I is added in front. So this rule turns t''' s''' into It''' Is'''.

Examples after root as --

as + laG tip AD-aj-AdInAm AT + as + tip akassa As + tipAs + t''' → * As + ItAsIt "there was"

as + laG sip → .. → AsIs "there was you"

Examples after sic --

dRz + luG tip → .. → adrAk- + sic + t''' → * adrAk + s + It''' kric adrAkSIt "he saw"

dRz + luG sip → .. → adrAkSIs "you saw"

mAG + bhI + luG sip → .. → mA bhaiSIs "don't be afraid"

Notice that the sic sometimes disappears AFTER this rule works --

vad + luG tip → .. → avad + sic + t'''avad + iSic + t vada;vraja avAd + iS + tavAd + iS + It''' iTa::ITi avAd + It "he said"

The word abravIt "he said" is a laG, not a luG. Its I does not come from this rule, but from bruva::IT. So, don't use abravIt if he said it today :)

KAZIKA asteraGgAt sijantAc ca parasya apRktasya sArvadhAtukasya IT-Agamo bhavati. asteH AsIt. AsIH. sijantAt akArSIt. asAvIt. alAvIt. apAvIt. apRkte iti kim? asti. akArSam. AhibhuvorITi pratiSedhaH iti sthAnivad-bhAva-pratiSedha teneha na bhavati, Attha, abhUd iti.

Why doesn't the mahAbhArata have that bhaiSIs in

mA bhais tvaM vipula-zroNi "don't be afraid, tootsie!"

?

The answer is, that bhais sux. The epics are supposed to long predate pANini, so we should ask "why?" when the mahAbhArata follows the rules, not when it doesn't.

Incidentally. If you can somehow find statistically significant evidence that the epics break some pANini rules when breaking them breaks the meter than when they don't, you will have proven that the composers were pANini-aware and didn't predate the grammar. And that would get you a PhD.

The literal translation of this rule is "one letter affixes get IT after asti and sic", and, as we are trickling the word hali from utovRddhirlukihali, only consonant affixes count. So Nal won't get IT after asti.

1106 letters. -- 73C.bse 318 -- popularity 17




(adassarve) (!adass)

adaH sarveSAm ONPANINI 73100
( t''' s''' get aT) after ad.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 861 laG

Only examples --

ad + laG tip AD-aj-AdInAm Ad + tipAd + t''' → * Adat "he ate"

ad + laG sip AD-aj-AdInAm Ad + sipAd + s''' → * Adas "you ate"

KAZIKA ada bhakSaNe, asmAduttarasya apRktasya sArvadhAtukasya aDAgamo bhavati sarveSAm AcAryANAM matena. Adat. AdaH. apRktasya ityeva, atti. atsi.

This rule will not work on the luG of ad, because luGsanorghasL is stronger. The luG is aghasat, aghasas, aghasam "he ate, you ate, I ate".

174 letters. -- 73C.bse 360 -- popularity 1
















72114 replacements before soft ←

chunk 42: 73050 more about taddhita

→ 73101 some sup-changing rules