64019 cchvoz ←

chunk 34: 64077 iyaG uvaG

→ 64131 on wimpiness

64077 yu roots, znu, bhrU- to iy uv before vowel. aciznudhAtubhruvAMyvoriyaGuvaGau
64078 of stammer to before non-similar. abhyAsasyAsavarNe
64079 strI- to . striyAH
64080 But optionally before am zas. vAmzasoH
64081 iN' to y . iNoyaN
64082 i I of an-ekAc root to y , unless it follows a cluster. eranekAcosaMyogapUrvasya
64083 u U to v before vowel sup ossupi
64085 But do not replace bhU- sudhI- . nabhUsudhiyoH
64087 hu and znu to before vowel hard. huznuvossArvadhAtuke
64088 bhU gets v before luG and liT. bhuvovugluGliToH
64092 Some roots shorten A before Nic. mitAMhrasvaH
64093 And lengthen optionally before ciN and Namul. ciNNamulordIrghonyatarasyAm
64098 of gam han jan khan ghas to lopa before kGit that is not aG. gamahanajanakhanaghasAMlopaHkGityanaGi
64101 hi''' to dhi after hu and serious. hujhalbhyoherdhiH
64104 ta to luk after ciN ciNoluk
64105 After a, hi''' to . atoheH
64106 after an u that is not after cluster and belongs to an affix. utazcapratyayAdasaMyogapUrvAt
64107 lopa before m v optionally. lopazcAsyAnyatarasyAmmvoH
64108 kuru compulsorily . nityaGkaroteH
64109 before y. yeca
64110 karu to kuru before hard . ata::utsArvadhAtuke
64111 a of znam and as to lopa . znasorallopaH
64112 , A of znA and stammered to . znAbhyastayorAtaH
64113 But to I before consonant, except the A of a ghu. IhalyaghoH
64119 ghu and as to e before hi''', and delete the stammer. ghvasoreddhAvabhyAsalopazca
64120 Before vowel liT, replace "PaPaC" with "PeC". ataekahalmadhyenAdezAderliTi
64121 Before ithal too. thalicaseTi

(aciznudhA) (/iy)

aci znu;dhAtu;bhruvAM y;vor iyaG;uvaGau ONPANINI 64077
yu roots, znu, bhrU- to iy(aG) uv(aG) before vowel.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 655

Exception to ikoyaNaci, akassa, and amipUrvaH --

' before all vowel affixes, the yu roots, the affix znu, and bhrU- "eyebrow", replace --

final u U with uv

final i I with iy. '

The y;u roots are those that end in i I u U, such as bhI or plu.

(The label G in iyaG uvaG makes Gicca work, and the a is padding.)

Examples with y;u roots --

dhi + laT tipdhi + za + ti → * dhiyati "holds"

nU + laT tipnU + za + ti → * nuvati "praises"

zru + liT jhizru + us liTidhA zuzru + us → * zuzruvus "they heard"

Notice that rule hardsoft works before this one, so not here --

ji + zap + tip hardsoft je + zap + ti ecoya jayati "wins"

Examples with znu-enders --

Ap + laT jhiAp + znu + jhiApnu + anti''' → * Apnuvanti "they get"

zak + zatRzak + znu + atzaknuvat- "that can"

Example with bhrU- "eyebrow", which is not a root --

bhrU + os → * bhruvos "two eyebrows"

Most of the nounbases that consist of one or more consonants followed by I or U are also rootnouns. Therefore they are y;u roots, and are affected by this rule --

dhI- + am → * dhiyam "smartness"

bhU- + Gi → * bhuvi "on earth"

The rootnouns dhI- "smartness", bhU- "earth", zrI- "glory, good luck, prosperity" come from the roots dhI "think", bhU "exist", zrI "shine".

When a root turns into a nounbase by adding kvip, this nounbase is still a root (by kvibantA), so this rule still applies --

grAma + nI + kvip + TAgrAmanI- + A → * grAmaniyA Natvam grAmaNiyA "by the mayor"

The nounbase strI-, not being a rootnoun, is unaffected by this rule, but it gets iyaG before vowels anyway, by rule striyAH.

lakSmI-, not being a nadI, is also unaffected.

(See also exception hu;znuvossA, and the exception to that exception, eranekA.)

KAZIKA znu-pratyay%Antasya aGgasya dhAtoH ivarN%ovarN%Antasya bhrU ity etasya ca iyaG-uvaG-ity etAv Adezau bhavato 'jAdau pratyaye parataH. Apnuvanti. rAdhnuvanti. zaknuvanti. dhAtoH - cikSiyatuH. cikSiyuH. luluvatuH. luluvuH. niyau. niyaH. luvau. luvaH. bhruvau. bhruvaH. aci iti kim? ApnuyAt. zaknuyAt. rAdhnuyAt. znu-dhAtu-bhruvAm iti kim? lakSmyau. vadhvai. yvoH iti kim? cakratuH. cakruH. iyaG-uvaG-bhyAM guNa-vRddhI bhavato vipratiSedhena. cayanam. cAyakaH. lavanam. lAvakaH. iyaG-uvaG-prakaraNe tanvAdInAM chandasi bahulam upasaGkhyAnaM kartavyam.

1166 letters. -- 64B.bse 309 -- popularity 28

(abhyAsasyA) (!abhyAsa)

abhyAsasy' .A-savarNe ONPANINI 64078
(i u) of stammer to (iy uv) before non- similar.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 656

Exception to ikoyaNaci. This turns i + e into iye, and u + o into uvo.

Examples --

iS + liT tipiS + Nal puganta eS + Nal liTidhA e + eS + Nal hrasvaH i + eS + a → * iyeSa "he wanted"

uS + Nal → .. → u + oS + Nal → * uvoSa "he burnt"

Before similar, akassa works normally --

iS + liT jhi → .. → i + iS + us akassa ISus "they wanted"

vac + liT tasvac + atus vacisvapi uc + atus liTidhA u + uc + atus akassa Ucatus "both said"

uS + us → .. → u + uS + usUSus "they burnt"

When the root starts with a, we get A by ata::AdeH.

KAZIKA abhyAsasya ivarNovarNAntasya avasarNe 'ci parataH iyaGuvaGityetAvAdezau bhavataH. iyeSa. uvoSa. iyarti. asavarNe iti kim? ISatuH. ISuH. USatuH. USuH. aci ityeva, iyAja. uvApa.

283 letters. -- 64B.bse 434 -- popularity 4

116 In case of contradiction, higher number works first.

921 Lengthen (the @stammer) of /iN' before /kit /liT.

927 (@Stammer) of /arti !piparti (to !i before /laT)

(striyAH) (!str)

striyAH ONPANINI 64079
strI- to ( iyaG before vowels).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 657

As in --

strI- + Gas ANnadyAH strI- + As → * striy + AsstriyAs "woman's"

Now, you might be wondering why pANini made this a separate rule, instead of just adding strI to the list znu-dhAtu-bhruvAm of rule aciznu.

That's because rules vAmi and Gitihrasvazca say that the nounbases mentioned in aciznu sometimes are nadI and sometimes not. strI- was placed here so that it is always nadI.

291 letters. -- 64B.bse 466 -- popularity 4

658 But optionally before /am /zas.

(vAmzasoH) (!vAmz)

vA 'm;zasoH ONPANINI 64080
But optionally before am zas.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 658

Exception to striyAH above. Only examples --

strI- + am amipUrvaH strIm "woman"

strI- + zas prathamayo strIs "women"

If we don't take the option, rule striyAH works normally --

strI- + am striyAH striyam "woman"

strI- + zas striyAH striyas "women"

KAZIKA ami zasi parataH striyAM vA iyaGAdezo bhavati. strIM pazya, striyaM pazya. strIH pazya, striyaH pazya.

151 letters. -- 64B.bse 483 -- popularity 4

60 @Seventh in a rule may mean "before".

1243 /strI- "woman".

1257 "Turtle /vA" means "or a turtle".

(iNoyaN) (!iNoy)

iNo yaN ONPANINI 64081
iN' to y (before vowel).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 659

Exception to aciznu, that would have replaced iN' with iy.

iN' + laT jhii + anti''' → * y + antiyanti "they go"

i + laG jhiAT + i + jh'''AT + i + ant''' → * AT + y + ant'''Ayan "they went"

i + zatR → * yat- "that goes"

By the talkaround madhye 'pavAdAH pUrvAn vidhIn bAdhante "exceptions in the middle debar previous rules only", this rule is weaker than acoJNiti and hardsoft, downriver. Therefore there is no i-to-y change here --

i + Nvuli + Nakal acoJNiti ai + aka ecoya Ayaka- m "goer"

i + lyuTi + lanaT hardsoft e + ana ecoya ayana- n "a going"

KAZIKA iNo 'Ggasya yaNAdezo bhavati aci parataH. yanti. yantu. Ayan. iyaGAdezApavado 'yam. madhye 'pavadAH pUrvAn vidhIn bAdhante iti guNavRddhibhyAM paratvAdayaM bAdhyate. ayanam. AyakaH.

366 letters. -- 64B.bse 505 -- popularity 3

662 But do not replace !bhU- !sudhI- (before @vowel with !y !v).

921 Lengthen (the @stammer) of /iN' before /kit /liT.

(eranekA) (!eran)

er an-ekAco 'saMyoga-pUrvasya ONPANINI 64082
i I of an- ekAc root to y (before vowel), unless it follows a cluster.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 660

Examples with a root proper before liT affixes --

nI + atus liTidhA ninI + atus → * niny + atus → .. → ninyatus "both led"

ninI- + us → * niny + us → .. → ninyus "they led"

These are exceptions to aciznu, that would have replaced with iy.

Example with a rootnoun before au --

pradhI- mf + aupradhyau

This rule won't work when the I i follows a cluster, such as the kr here --

yava- + krI + au aciznu yavakriyau "two barley-buyers"

KAZIKA dhAtoH iti vartate, tena saMyogo vizeSyate. dhAtoravayavaH saMyogaH pUrvo yasmAdivarNAna bhavati asAvasaMyogapUrvaH, tadantasya aGgasya anekAco 'ci parato yaNAdezo bhavati. ninyatuH. ninyuH. unnyau. unnyaH. grAmaNyau. grAmaNyaH. eH iti kim? asaMyogapUrvagrahaNam ivarNavizeSaNaM yathA syAt, aGgavizeSaNaM mA bhUtiti. luluvatuH, luluvuH ityetat tu oH supIti niyamAd api sidhyati. anekAcaH iti kim? niyau. niyaH. asaMyogapUrvasya iti kim? yavakriyau. yavakriyaH. dhAtunA saMyogavizeSaNam kim? iha api syAdunnyau, unnyaH iti. gatikArakAbhyAm anyapUrvasya neSyate, paramaniyau, paramaniyaH iti.

Oopsie sorry. Now that I notice, the ninyatus line above is incorrect. I should have made this rule work first, and liTidhA later. One of these days I'll fix that.

418 letters. -- 64B.bse 534 -- popularity 7

569 @Merge /ak with /au /jas /zas into the lengthened /ak.

572 (No !!prathamayo) of @long with /au /jas.

706 (!jh) of /jhi to !at after @stammered

847 /ji (to !gi) before /san and /liT.

881 Replace /Gi with !Am after /nadI, /Ap, !nI.

894 /zIG to /guNa before @hard.

(ossupi) (!oss)

oH supi ONPANINI 64083
(After non cluster,) u U to v before vowel supmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 661

Exception to aciznu above, that would have made uv.

Example --

khalapU- + au → * khalapvau

KAZIKA dhAtvavayavaH saMyogaH pUrvo yasmAduvarNAn na bhavati, tadantasya aGgasya anekAcaH ajAdau supi parato yaNAdezo bhavati. khalapvau. khalapvaH. zatasvau. zatasvaH. sakRllvau. sakRllvaH. supi iti kim? luluvatuH. luluvuH. anekAcaH ityeva, luvau. luvaH. asaMyogapUrvasya ityeva, kaTapruvau. kaTapruvaH. gatikArakAbhyAm anyapUrvasya na iSyate, paramaluvau. paramaluvaH.

66 letters. -- 64B.bse 583 -- popularity 2

660 {i I} of {an}-/ekAc root to !y (before @vowel), unless it follows a cluster.

662 But do not replace !bhU- !sudhI- (before @vowel with !y !v).

(nabhUsudhi) (!nabhU)

na bhU;sudhiyoH ONPANINI 64085
But do not replace bhU- sudhI- (before vowel with y v).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 662

Exception to ossupi, iNoyaN and other rules, that are exceptions to aciznu and would have replaced U I with v y. Because of this exception to the exception, aciznu does work and we get iyaG uvaG after all --

Examples --

bhU + sudhI- + os → * bhUsudhiyos "replace bhU and sudhi"

svayam + bhU + Gas → * svayambhuvas "of brahmA"

KAZIKA bhU sudhI ity etayor yaN-Adezo na bhavati. pratibhuvau. pratibhuvaH. sudhiyau. sudhiyaH.

242 letters. -- 64B.bse 594 -- popularity none

(huznuvossA) (!hu)

hu;znuvoH sArvadhAtuke ONPANINI 64087
hu and (clusterless non- ekAc) znu to (v) before vowel hard.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 663

Exception to aciznu, that would have turned u into uv.

So, juhu becomes juhv --

hu + laT jhijuhu + ati''' → * juhvati "they pour"

hu + znu + zatRjuhu + at → * juhvat- "pouring"

and zRNu becomes zRNv --

zru + laT jhizRNu + anti''' → * zRNvanti "they hear"

zru + znu + zatRzRNu + at → * zRNvat- "that hear"

KAZIKA hu ity etasya aGgasya znu-pratyay%Antasya anekAcaH a-saMyoga-pUrvasya ajAdau sArvadhAtuke parato yaN-Adezo bhavati. juhvati. juhvatu. juhvat. sunvanti. sunvantu. asunvan. huznuvoH iti kim? yoyuvati. roruvati. idam eva huznugrahaNaM jJApakaM bhASAyAm api yaGlugasti iti. chandasi 64086 chandasy ubhayathety ArdhadhAtuka-tvAd eva yaN-Adezasya aprasaGgaH. naca yaGlukantAdayat pratyudAharaNam uvarN%Antam anekAca-saMyoga-pUrvaM sArvadhAtuke vidyate. sArvadhAtuke iti kim? juhuvatuH. juhuvuH. asaMyogapUrvasya ityeva, Apnuvanti. rAdhnuvanti.

This rule will not work before liT affixes, as they are soft by liTca --

hu + laT jhihu + usjuhu + us aciznu juhuvus "they poured"

This rule will not work when the u follows a cluster. For instance, Ap + znu makes Apnu, where the u follows the cluster pn. Therefore this exception won't work and we get aciznu as usual --

Ap + laT jhi → .. → Apnu + anti''' aciznu Apnuvanti "they reach"

479 letters. -- 64B.bse 617 -- popularity 7

707 (!jh) of /jha (to !at) after non-!a.

800 ({a}-enders) get /muk before /zAnac /kAnac.

856 /ik to (/guNa) before @hard and @soft.

(bhuvovuglu) (!bhuvov)

bhuvo vug luG;liToH ONPANINI 64088
bhU gets v(uk) before ( vowel) luG and liT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 664

Exception to aciznu, that would have made bhU into bhuv.

Examples before the luG vowel affixes am''' ant''' --

bhU + luG mipbhU + sic + mip gAtisthA bhU + mip → * bhUv + mip luGlaG abhUv + mipabhUv + am'''abhUvam "I was"

bhU + luG jhibhU + sic + jhi gAtisthA bhU + jhi → * bhUv + jhi luGlaG abhUv + jhi AtaH abhUvan "they were"

Examples before liT --

bhU + us → * bhUv + us liTidhA bubhUv + us bhavateraH babhUvus "they were"

babhUvatus "both were"

babhUva "he was"

KAZIKA bhuvo vug-Agamo bhavati luGi liTi ca ajAdau parataH. abhUvan. abhUvam liT babhUva, babhUvatuH, babhavuH.

284 letters. -- 64B.bse 686 -- popularity 6

209 Replace /as with !bhU (before @soft).

860 /bhU !sU get no @hardsoft before @hard /tiG.

1564 /cakAra /babhUva /Asa

(mitAMhrasvaH) (@mi)

mitAM hrasvaH ONPANINI 64092
Some roots shorten A before Nic.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 665

Some roots, called mit roots, shorten the A that they get because of Nic. The shortening may be compulsory or optional.


kram + Nic is affected by this rule --

kram + Nic ata::upa krAmi → * krami "set in motion, make (others) advance"

krami + laT → .. → kramayati "makes (them) walk"

This shortening also happens in some roots that have an original A, not coming from a --

jJA + Nic arttihrI jJAp + Nic → * jJapi "inform, make others know"

jJapi + laT → .. → jJapayati "lets (them) know"

zamayati "he soothes, alleviates"

janayati "begets"




How do we know which roots get this shortening? The rule says that the affected roots are those that have m label in the dhAtupATha, but that is useless to us, because we have no way of figuring out which roots have that label. Instead, look for zam root into a dictionary such as mmw or Apte's. It will say that the causative is zamayati.

KAZIKA mito dhAtavaH ghaTAdayo mitaH ityevam Adayo ye pratipAditAH, teSAm upadhAyA hrasvo bhavati Nau parataH. ghaTayati. vyathayati. janayati. rajayati. zamayati. jJapayati. kecid atra vA ity anuvartayanti. sA ca vyavasthita-vibhASA. tena utkrAmayati, saMkrAmayati ityevam Adi siddhaM bhavati.

677 letters. -- 64B.bse 769 -- popularity 2

1366 Some [@affix]es are [@augment]s.

(ciNNamulo) (!ciNN)

ciN;Namulor dIrgho 'nyatarasyAm ONPANINI 64093
And lengthen optionally before ciN and Namul.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 666

The roots mentioned in the previous rule may lengthen or not before ciN and Namul --

zam + ciN → * azAmi "he was soothed"

zam + ciN → * azami "he was soothed"

zam + Namul → * zAmaMzAmam

zam + Namul → * zamaMzamam

This shortening will also happen, optionally, before affixes that became ciN-like by rule ciNvadiT, like the sic here --

zAmi + luG AtAm → .. → azAmiSAtAm "both were soothed"

zAmi + luG AtAm → .. → azAmiSAtAm → * azamiSATAm "both were soothed"

KAZIKA ciNpare Namulpare ca Nau parataH mitAm aGgAnAm upadhAyAH dIrgho bhavati anyatarasyAM. azami, azAmi. atami, atAmi. zamaMzamam, zAmaMzAmam. tamantamam, tAmantAmam. dIrghagrahaNaM kiM, na hrasvavikalpa eva vidhIyate? na evaM zakyam, zamayantaM prayuGkte iti dvitIye Nici hrasva-vikalpo na syAt. Nilopasya sthAnivadbhAvAd dIrghavidhau tvajAdezo na sthAnivat. zayamantaM prayuktavAn. azami, azAmi. zamaMzamam, zAmaMzAmam. zaMzamayateH azaMzami, azaMzAmi. zaMzamaMzaMzamam, zaMzAmaMzaMzAmam. yo 'sau Nau Nirlupyate, yazca yaGkAraH, tayor dirghavidhau Adezo na sthAnivad bhavati iti asthAnivadbhAvAt dIrghaH siddho bhavati. hrasvavikalpe tu vidhIyamAne sthAnivadbhAvaH syAt. NiNyante yaGNyante tvasiddhireva. vyAzrayatvAda-siddhatvam api nAsti. Nau hi NiyaGor lopaH, ciNNamulpare NAvaGgasya dIrghatvam.

327 letters. -- 64B.bse 840 -- popularity 1

(gamahana) (!gam)

gama;hana;jana;khana;ghasAM lopaH kGity an-aGi ONPANINI 64098
( nexttolast) of gam han jan khan ghas to lopa before ( vowel) kGit that is not aG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 667

Example. us is kit here, by asaMyogAlliTkit --

gam + liT jhigam + us → * gm + us liTidhA gagmus kuhozcuH jagmus "they went"

And here anti''' is Git by hard apit is Git --

han + anti''' → * hn + anti hohante ghnanti "they kill"

KAZIKA gama hana jana khA ghasa ityeteSAm aGgAnAm upadhAyA lopo bhavatyajAdau pratyaye kGiti anaGi parataH. jagmatuH. jagmuH. jaghnatuH. jaghnuH. jajJe, jajJAte, jajJire. cakhnatuH. cakhnuH. jakSatuH. jakSuH. akSan pitaro 'momadanta pitaraH. kGiti iti kim? gamanam. hananam. anaGi iti kim? agamat. aghasat. aci ity eva, gamyate. hanyate.

138 letters. -- 64B.bse 865 -- popularity 9

836 /han to !ghat before (a /JNit) that is not /ciN nor /Nal.

846 (!han to !gh) after @stammer.

1027 (!s) of /zAs /vas' /ghas (to !S after /kric).

1215 /han before /tiG

1676 conjugation of /han

(hujhalbhyohe) (/dhi)

hu;jhalbhyo her dhiH ONPANINI 64101
(iTless) hi''' to dhi after hu and serious.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 668

Examples after hu --

hu + loT sipjuhu + sipjuhu + hi''' → * juhudhi "pour!"

After dh, S, d, all serious --

rudh + loT siprundh + hi → * rundh + dhi jhalAJjazjhazi runddhi "obstruct!"

dviS + loT sipdviS + hi''' → * dviS + dhi STunA dviS + Dhi jhalAJjazjhazi dviDDhi "hate!"

bhid + loT sipbhid + hi'''bhind + hi ( like above ) hujhal bhinddhi "split!"

This rule trickles (" when hi''' starts with a consonant ") from 64100 ghasi-bhasor hali ca , a vedic rule. Therefore, this rule does not work on the ihi made by rudAdibhya --

rud + loT siprud + hi''' rudAdibhya rudihi "cry!"

svap + loT sipsvap + hi'''svapihi "sleep!"

Spelling warning. Even though runddhi and bhinddhi are correct forms, you will often find all nddh words spelled with ndh -- rundhi, bhindhi.

KAZIKA hu ity etasmAj jhalantebhyas ca uttarasya halAdeH heH sthAne dhir-Adezo bhavati. juhudhi. jhalantebhyaH bhindhi. chindhi. hujhalbhyaH iti kim? krINIhi. prINIhi. her iti kim? juhutAm. hali ityeva, rudihi. svapihi. iha juhutAt, bhintAt tvam iti paratvAt tAtaGi kRte sakRdgatau vipratiSedhena yad badhitaM tad bAdhitam eva iti punaH dhibhAvo na bhavati. bhindhaki, chindhaki ityatra paratvAd dhibhAve kRte punaH prasaGgavijJAnAdakac kriyate.

499 letters. -- 64B.bse 918 -- popularity 7

639 (!zAs to) !zA before /hi'''

671 (/hi''' to /luk) after an !u that is not after @cluster and belongs to an affix.

679 /ghu and /as to !e before /hi''', and delete the @stammer.

965 /baz of /ekAc [/jhaS]-ender root to /bhaS when @wordfinal or before !s !dhv.

(ciNoluk) (!ciNo)

ciNo luk ONPANINI 64104
ta to luk after ciNmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 669

As in --

kR + akartari luG ta luGlaG akR + taakR + cli + taakR + ciN + ta → * akR + ciN acoJNiti akAri "it was made"

Even though pANini does not bother to say so, no other tiG but ta can be used after ciN. So the object of akAri must always be third person singular, as in akAri kaTaH "a mat was made".

KAZIKA ciNa uttarasya pratyayasya lug bhavati. akAri. ahAri. alAvi. apAci. akAritarAm, ahAritamAm ityatra talopasya asiddhatvAt taraptamapor na lug bhavati. ciNo lukityetad viSayabhedAd bhidyate.

202 letters. -- 64B.bse 982 -- popularity 3

837 {A}-enders get {y(uk)} before /ciN and (/JNit) /kRt.

(atoheH) (!atohe)

ato heH ONPANINI 64105
After a, hi''' to ( luk).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 670

Examples --

dRz + zap + loT sipdRz + zap + hi'''pazya + hi → * pazya "look!"

nRtya + hi''' → * nRtya "dance!"

kSipa + hi''' → * kSipa "shoot!"

coraya "steal!"

hi''' can also get luked by next rule, utazca.

KAZIKA akArAntAdaGgAduttarasya heH lug bhavati. paca. paTha. gaccha. dhAba. ataH iti kim? yuhi. ruhi. taparakaraNaM kim? lunIhi. punIhi. Itvasya asiddhatvAdakAra eva bhavati.

134 letters. -- 64B.bse 1009 -- popularity 6

64 @Vowel with !t means its own time.

127 [/sup]-[/tiG]-ender is @word.

732 Optionally /tu''' and /hi''' to /tAtaG when wishing.

(utazcapra) (!uta)

utaz ca pratyayAd a-saMyoga-pUrvAt ONPANINI 64106
( hi''' to luk) after an u that is not after cluster and belongs to an affix.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 671

The affix will be either u or znu.

Example with the u of affix u --

kR + loT sipkR + hi'''kuru + hi''' → * kuru "make!"

Example with the u of znu --

zru + znu + hi'''zRNu + hi → * zRNu "listen!"

This rule will not work when the u belongs to a root --

juhu + hi''' hujhal juhudhi "sacrifice!"

nor when the u follows a cluster, that is to say, when znu follows a consonant --

Ap + hi'''Ap + znu + hiApnuhi "get!"

KAZIKA ukAro yo 'saMyogapUrvaH tadantAt pratyayAduttarasya herluk bhavati. cinu. sunu. kuru. utaH iti kim? lunIhi. punIhi. pratyayAtiti kim? yuhi. ruhi. asaMyogapUrvAtiti kim? prApnuhi. rAdhnuhi. takSNuhi. utazca pratyayAc chandovAvacanam. utazca pratyayAdityatra chandasi vA iti vaktavyam. Atanuhi yAtudhAnAn. dhinuhi yajJapatim. tena mA bhaginaM kRNu.

278 letters. -- 64B.bse 1042 -- popularity 3

670 After !a, /hi''' to (/luk).

(lopazcAsyA) (!lopazc)

lopaz c' .Asy' .AnyatarasyAM mvoH ONPANINI 64107
( u znu that does not follow a cluster to) lopa before m v optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 672

Examples --

zru + znu + laT maszRNu + maszRNumas "we hear" → * zRNmas "we hear"

tan + u + laT mastanumas → * tanmas "we spread"

If we don't take this option, the u stays --

zRNumas "we hear"

tanumas "we spread"

The u must always stay after a cluster --

Apnumas "we get"

zaknumas "we can"

See exception nityaGkaroteH below.

KAZIKA ukAro yo 'saMyogapUrvaH tadantAt pratyayAduttarasya herluk bhavati. cinu. sunu. kuru. utaH iti kim? lunIhi. punIhi. pratyayAtiti kim? yuhi. ruhi. asaMyogapUrvAtiti kim? prApnuhi. rAdhnuhi. takSNuhi. utazca pratyayAc chandovAvacanam. utazca pratyayAdityatra chandasi vA iti vaktavyam. Atanuhi yAtudhAnAn. dhinuhi yajJapatim. tena mA bhaginaM kRNu.

229 letters. -- 64B.bse 1078 -- popularity 1

1198 /kR means "do, make"

(nityaGkaro) (!nityaGka)

nityaM karoteH ONPANINI 64108
( chop) kuru compulsorily (before v m).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 673

kuru always loses its final before v m of a Git --

kR + u + laT maskuru + maskurumas → * kurmas "we do"

See also yeca below.

KAZIKA karoteH uttarasya ukArapratyayasya vakAramakArAdau pratyaye parataH nityaM lopo bhavati. kurvaH. kurmaH. ukAralopasya dIrghavidhau asthAnivadbhAvAd hali ca iti dIrghatvaM prAptam, na bha-kur-churAm iti pratiSidhyate.

Here halica did not work, because of exception nabhakurchu.

135 letters. -- 64B.bse 1106 -- popularity 4

672 (/u /znu that does not follow a @cluster to) /lopa before !m !v optionally.

1199 /kR with /u

(yeca) (!ye)

ye ca ONPANINI 64109
( chop kuru ) before y.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 674

Replace kuru with kur before any tiG that starts with y.

Example --

kR + @hard liG tipkR + yAt'''kuru + yAt → * kuryAt "he would do"

The tiG that start with y are the nine flat hard liG (no other y-starters ever appear after kuru). So this rule has exactly nine examples --

kuryAt kuryAtAm kuryus

kuryAs kuryAtam kuryata

kuryAm kuryAva kuryAma

See also kR with u .

KAZIKA yakArAdau ca pratyaye parataH karoteH uttarasya ukArapratyayasya nityaM lopo bhavati. kuryAt, kuryAtAm, kuryuH.

277 letters. -- 64B.bse 1122 -- popularity 3

673 (@chop) /kuru compulsorily (before !v !m).

1198 /kR means "do, make"

(ata::utsA) (/kur)

ata:: ut sArvadhAtuke ONPANINI 64110
karu to kuru before hard ( kGit).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 675

Examples --

kR + laT taskaru + tas → * kuru + taskurutas "the two of them do"

kR + laT maskaru + mas → * kuru + mas nityaMkaroteH kurmas "we do"

See also kR with u .

KAZIKA ukAra-pratyay%Antasya karoteH akArasya sthAne ukAraH Adezo bhavati sArvadhAtuke kGiti parataH. kurutaH. kurvanti. sArvadhAtuka-grahaNaM kim? bhUtapUrve 'pi sArvadhAtuke yathA syAt, kuru. tapara-karaNaM laghUpadhasya guNa-nivRtty-artham. kGiti ityeva, karoti. karoSi. karomi.

97 letters. -- 64B.bse 1140 -- popularity 6

671 (/hi''' to /luk) after an !u that is not after @cluster and belongs to an affix.

674 ( @chop /kuru ) before !y.

984 But not @wimpy, !kur, !chur.

1198 /kR means "do, make"

(znasorallo) (!zna)

zn;asor al-lopaH ONPANINI 64111
a of znam and as to lopa (before kGit).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 676

Replacing na with n --

yuj + znam + anti''' midaco yunaj + anti → * yunjanti → .. → yuJjanti "they join"

bhuj + znam + te''' midaco bhunaj + te → * bhunjte → .. → bhuGkte "eats"

rudh + anti''' midaco runadh + anti → * rundh + anti → .. → rundhanti "they obstruct"

Replacing as with s --

as + anti''' → * s + antisanti "there are"

vi + ati + as + laT iT'vyati + as + e''' → * vyati + s + e''' ha::eti vyatihe "I do someone else's job"

When the tiG is not Git, the a stays, as in --

yunakSi "you join"

ruNaddhi "obstructs"

asti "there is"

KAZIKA znasya astezca akArasya lopo bhavati sArvadhAtuke kGiti parataH. rundhaH. rundhanti. bhintaH. bhindanti. asteH staH. santi. kGiti ityeva bhinatti. asti. znasoH iti AkArasya pararUpatvaM zakandhvAdisu draSTavyam.

It is sort of weird that the rule has znasos to mean "replace znam and as". I swear that I did not misspell znamasos.

419 letters. -- 64B.bse 1198 -- popularity 8

632 Delete !n of root after /znam.

679 /ghu and /as to !e before /hi''', and delete the @stammer.

707 (!jh) of /jha (to !at) after non-!a.

862 !tRnah gets !im (before @consonant @hard /pit).

1572 about /rundh and /runadh

(znAbhyastayo) (!znAb)

znA;'bhyastayor AtaH ONPANINI 64112
(Before kGit hard), A of znA and stammered to ( lopa).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 677

In the examples, we use the hard affixes anti''', ati'''. These are Git because of hard apit is Git , and start with vowels.

Example with znA --

krI + laT jhikrI + znA + jhikrI + nA + anti''' → * krI + n + anti''' Natvam krINanti "they buy"

krI + laT jhakrI + znA + jhakrI + nA + ate''' → * krI + n + ate Natvam krINate "they buy"

krI + laT iT'krI + znA + iT' Tita krI + nA + e''' → * krI + n + e Natvam krINe "I buy"

Examples with a stammered --

dA + laT jhidA + zlu + jhi zlau dAdA + jhi hrasvaH dadA + jhi adabhyastAt dadA + ati''' → * dadati "they give"

dhA + loT thAsdhA + zlu + thAs zlau dhAdhA + jhi → .. → dadhA + thAsdadhA + sva''' → * dadh + sva throwback dhadh + sva kharica dhatsva "set!"

daridrA has no zlu, but is a stammered by jakSityAdayaSSaT --

daridrA + laT jhi adabhyastAt daridrA + ati''' → * daridrati "they are poor"

This rule also works before consonant affixes, but only after a ghu root --

dA + laT tas → .. → dadA + tas → * dad + tas kharica dattas "both give"

dA + laG tas → .. → adadA + tAm''' → * adad + tAm kharica adattAm "both gave"

Because after the non- ghu, exception Ihalyagho below gets in the way.

See also laT of dA and dhA .

KAZIKA znA ity etasya abhyastAnAM ca aGgAnAm AkArasya lopo bhavati sArvadhAtuke kGiti parataH. lunate. lunatAm. alunata. abhyastAnAm mimate. mimatAm. amimata. saMjihate. saMjihatAm. samajihata. znAbhyas tayoH iti kim? yAnti. vAnti. AtaH iti kim? bibhrati. kGiti ityeva, alunAt. ajahAt. AdgrahaNaM spaSTArtham.

715 letters. -- 64B.bse 1255 -- popularity 11

(IhalyaghoH) (!Ih)

I haly aghoH ONPANINI 64113
But to I before consonant, except the A of a ghu.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 678

Exception to znAbhyasta. If the kGit hard starts with a consonant, we replace A with I, not with nothing.

Examples of A to I before consonants --

krI + laT taskrI + znA + tas → * krInItas Natvam krINItas "both buy"

krI + laT te'''krI + znA + takrInA + te''' → * krInI + te Natvam krINIte "buys"

krI + laG tas → .. → akrInA + tAm''' → * akrInI + tAm Natvam akrINItAm "both bought"

mimA + laT te''' → * mimIte "he measures"

If the kGit hard starts with a vowel, we still erase the A, by the previous rule --

jahA + laT jhijahA + ati''' znAbhya jahati "they abandon"

jahA + laG jhijahA + jus znAbhya ajahus "they abandoned"

And if the hard is not kGit, the A stays, because no rule replaces it --

jahA + laT tipjahAti "he abandons"

As this rule won't work on the ghu roots, their A becomes lopa by the previous rule before all kGit, no matter if they start with a consonant or not --

dA + laT tadadA + te''' znAbhyasta dad + te kharica datte "he gives"

dA + laT jhadadA + ate''' znAbhyasta dad + ate kharica dadate "they give"

KAZIKA znAntAnAm aGgAnAm abhyastAnAM ca ghuvarjitAnAm AtaH IkArAdezo bhavati halAdau sArvadhAtuke kGiti parataH. lunItaH. punItaH. lunIthaH. punIthaH. lunIte. punIte. abhyastAnAm mimIte. mimISe. mimIdhve. saMjihIte. saMjihISe. saMjihIdhve. hali iti kim? lunanti. mimate. aghoH iti kim? dattaH. dhattaH. kGiti ityeva, lunAti. jahAti.

680 letters. -- 64B.bse 1392 -- popularity 8

108 (@Bent) after !jJA when meaning 'denying'.

926 (@Stammer) of {bhR mA hA} to !i (before /zlu).

1568 /znA examples

1656 /laT of /dA and /dhA

(ghvasoreddhA) (!ghv)

ghv;asor ed @dhAv abhyAsa-lopaz ca ONPANINI 64119
ghu and as to e before hi''', and delete the stammer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 679

Example with a ghu --

dA + loT sipdadA + sipdadA- + hi''' → * dehi "give!"

Only example with as --

as + loT sip serhyapicca as + hi''' znasorallopaH s + hi''' hujhal s + dhi → * edhi "be!"

This edhi is a rarity. Where it would belong, you'll almost always hear bhava instead, from root bhU --

sthiro bhava "be firm!"

KAZIKA ghusaMjJakAnAmaGgAnAmastezca ekArAdezo bhavati hau parataH abhyAsalopazca. dehi. dhehi. asteH znasor al-lopa] ity akAra-lopaH, edhi. zidayam lopaH, tena sarvasyAbhyAsasya bhavati.

192 letters. -- 64B.bse 1477 -- popularity 2

1193 /dA "give", /dhA "put"

(ataeka) (/pe)

ata:: eka-hal-madhye 'n-AdezAder liTi ONPANINI 64120
Before vowel ( kit ) liT, replace "PaPaC" with "PeC".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 680

This rule affects roots made of consonant plus a plus consonant, such as

pac pat sad ram man.

before all liT, rule liTidhA turns those into --

papac papat sasad raram maman

now, because of this rule, if the liT affix is kit (see asaMyogAlliTkit), then the stammer disappears and the a of the root turns into e, making --

pec pet sed rem men.

Examples --

pac + us liTidhA papac + us → * pecus "they cooked"

pat + us liTidhA papat + us → * petus "they fell"

sad + us → .. → sedus "they sat"

ram + ez liTidhA raram + ez → * reme "he had fun"

man + ez → .. → mene "he thought"

man + irec → .. → menire "they thought"

Counterexample with Nal, whis is akit --

pac + Nal liTidhA papac + uspapAca "he cooked"

This rule will not work if --

(A) the liT affix is akit --

pac + Nal → .. → papAca

pac + thal → .. → papAktha

(But see the exception thali ca seTi below.)

(B) The root is not made of one consonant + a + one consonant.

viz + us → .. → vivizus "they entered"

rakS + us → .. → rarakSus "they protected"

zram + us → .. → zazramus

(C) The first consonant of the stammer changes (by abhyAsecarca, kuhozcuH, etc) --

bhaN + us liTidhA bha + bhaN + us abhyAsecarca ba + bhaN + usbabhaNus

kaN + us liTidhA ka + kaN + us kuhozcuH ca + kaN + uscakaNus

KAZIKA liTi parata AdezaH Adir yasya aGgasya na asti tasya ekahalmadhye asahAyayor halor madhye yo 'kAras tasya ekArAdezo bhavati, abhyAsalopaH ca liTi kGiti parataH. reNatuH. reNuH. yematuH. yemuH. pecatuH. pecuH. dematuH. demuH. ataH iti kim? didivatuH. didivuH. taparakaraNaM kim? rarAse, rarAsAte, rarAsire. ekahalmadhye iti kim? zazramatuH. zazramuH. tatsaratuH. tatsaruH. anAdezAdeH iti kim? cakaNatuH. cakaNuH. jagaNatuH. jagaNuH. babhaNatuH. babhaNuH. liTaH AdezavizeSaNaM kim? iha api yathA syAt, nematuH. nemuH. sehe, sehAte, sehire. anaimittike natvasatve, tadAdir liTi AdezAdirna bhavati. iha abhyAsa-jaztva-cartvayor asiddhatvaM nAsti, tena tadAdir apy AdezAdir bhavati. tathA ca phalibhajoretvaM vidhIyate. rUpAbhede cAdezAdir na azrIyate iti zasidadyoH pratiSedhavacanaM jJApakam. anyathA hi pecatuH, pecuH, dematuH, demuH ityevam AdInAm api prakRtijazcarAdInAm etvaM na syAt. kGiti ityeva, ahaM papaca. ahaM papaTha. dambheretvaM vaktavyam. debhatuH. debhuH. nalopasya asiddhatvAn na prApnoti. nazimanyoraliTyetvaM vaktavyam. anezam. menakA. anezam iti nazeH luGi puSAditvAdaG. menakA iti maneH AziSi ca 31150 iti vun. kSipakAdiSu prakSepAditvaM na kriyate. chandasyamipacorapyaliTyetvaM vaktavyam. vyemAnam. amervipUrvasya cAnazi muk na kriyate. liGi peciran. paceranityetasya chAndasaM hrasvatvam. yajivapyozca. Ayeje. Avepe. laGi iTi chandasy api dRzyate 64073 iti anajAderapi iD-AgamaH.

My translation of this rule, "replace papac with pec", is very imprecise. The original rule, however, says exactly when the rule must work. It says --

' Before liT, replace with e the a that is between two lone consonants, and delete the stammer. But not if the stammer consonant was replaced. '

I use exact translations mostly everywhere, but here I went for a rough translation, because here the exact translation is a bit too long for my students to remember. Sorry.

1160 letters. -- 64B.bse 1500 -- popularity 2

889 {RR}-enders, /Rcch and !R to (/guNa before /liT).

(thalicase) (!tha)

thali ca seTi ONPANINI 64121
Before ithal too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 681

thal is akit, therefore, ordinarily it does not trigger pecus --

pac + liT sippac + thal liTidhA papac + tha coHkuH papaktha "thou cooked"

But because of this exception, when thal turns into ithal, it does trigger pecus anyway --

pac + liT sippac + thal kRsRbhRvR pac + ithal liTidhA papac + itha pecus pecitha "thou cooked"

Rule upadezetvataH says that, after pac, thal can turn into ithal or not. So, both papaktha and pecitha are kosher.

KAZIKA thali ca seTi parato 'nAdezA'-deH aGgasya eka-hal-madhya-gatasya ataH sthAne ekAra Adezo bhavati, abhyAsa-lopaz ca. pecitha. zekitha. seTi iti kim? papaktha. thal-grahaNaM vispaST%Artham. akGidartham etad vacanam iti anyasy / eTo 'sambhavAt. ataH ity eva, didevitha. eka-hal-madhya-gatasya ityeva, tatakSitha. rarakSitha. anAdezAder ityeva, cakaNitha. babhaNitha.

304 letters. -- 64B.bse 1779 -- popularity 2

64019 cchvoz ←

chunk 34: 64077 iyaG uvaG

→ 64131 on wimpiness