31003 syA tAs cli ←

chunk 18: 31067 verb classes

→ 31091 root affixes

31067 ya before hard nondoer. sArvadhAtukeyak
31068 zap before doer kartarizap
31069 Some roots get zyan . divAdibhyazzyan
31073 su etc get znu . svAdibhyazznuH
31074 zru to zR . zruvazzRca
31077 tud etc get a . tudAdibhyazzaH
31078 rudh etc. get znam. rudhAdibhyazznam
31079 tan etc, and kR, get u . tanAdikRJbhya::uH
31081 krI and others get nA kryAdibhyazznA
31082 stambh stumbh skambh skumbh sku get either znu or znA. stambhustumbhuskambhuskumbhuskuJbhyazznuzca
31083 After consonant, znA to zAnac before hi'''. halazznazzAnajjhau




(/yak) (/yak)

sArvadhAtuke yak ONPANINI 31067
( root gets) ya(k) before hard nondoer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 264 vikaraNa

The root that is right before a hard nondoer affix gets yak added.

Examples --

Example with a ta affix that means the object --

pac + karmaNi laT tapac + te''' → * pacyate "it is being cooked"

as in

odananM dAsena pacyate "the servant is cooking the rice"

Example with a ta affix that means nothing --

As + bhAve laT taAs + te''' → * Asyate "sitting is ongoing"

as in

Asyate bhavatA "you are sitting"

This rule won't work when the nondoer affix is soft, or when affixes tAs, sya, cli come in between, making the root not be right before the nondoer. Therefore, this rule only works when the nondoer affix replaced laT, laG, loT, or hard liG.

See also root changes before yak and soft liG .

KAZIKA bhAva-karma-vAcini sArvadhAtuke parato dhatoH yak pratyayo bhavati. Asyate bhavatA. zayyate bhavatA. karmaNi kriyate kaTaH. gamyate grAmaH. kakAro guNa-vRddhi-pratiSedhArthaH. yagvidhAne karmakrtaryupasaGkhyAnam. vipratiSedhAd dhi yakaH zapo valIyastvam. kriyate kaTaH svayam eva. pacyate odanaH svayam eva.

The rule just says " yak before hard". Yet, this rule only works before hard nondoer, because the rules mentioned in page verb classes , such as kartarizap, override this rule before doer affixes.

677 letters. -- 31D.bse 10 -- popularity 50




(kartarizap) (/zap)

kartari zap ONPANINI 31068
zap before ( hard) doermmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 265 vikaraNa

Add (z)a(p) after the root that is right before a hard doer affix.

Examples with the hard doer affixes tip ta --

pac + laT tip → * pac + zap + tippacati "cooks"

vRt + laT ta → * vRt + zap + tavRt + zap + te''' puganta vartate "happens"

zuc + laT tip → * zuc + zap + tipzoca + tizocati "mourns"

cinti + laT tip → * cinti + zap + tipcintaya + ticintayati "thinks"

This rule will only work when the nondoer affix replaces a zabyak tense.

See also When kartarizap won't work .

Back to verb classes .

342 letters. -- 31D.bse 321 -- popularity 115




(divAdibhya) (/zy)

div'-AdibhyaH zyan ONPANINI 31069
Some roots get zyan (before hard doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 266

Exception to kartarizap. Some roots get (z)ya(n) instead of zap when they are before a hard doer affix.

Such roots are called divAdi roots, zyanclass roots, or class four roots (see verb classes ).

As zyan is Git by hard apit is Git , it causes no puganta.

Examples --

div "gamble" + laT tip → * div + zyan + tip halica dIv + ya + tidIvyati "gambles"

nRt "dance" + laT tip → * nRt + zyan + tipnRtyati "dances"

yudh "fight" + laT ta → * yudh + zyan + tayudh + zyan + te'''yudhyate "fights"

siv "sew" + laT tip → * siv + zyan + ti halica sIvyati "sews"

In all of those, the accent is on the root, because zyan is nit

Note. With bent affixes like ta, the kartari and the akartari are spelled the same way --

yudh "fight" + kartari laT ta → .. → yudhyate "fights"

yudh "fight" + bhAve laT ta → .. → yudhyate "fighting is ongoing"

But the kartari gets the accent on yu, while the akartari gets the accent on yak.

Back to verb classes .

KAZIKA div ity evam AdibhyaH dhAtubhyaH zyan-pratyayo bhavati. zapo 'pavAdaH. nakAraH svarArthaH. zakAraH sArvadhAtukArthaH. dIvyati. sIvyati.

647 letters. -- 31D.bse 371 -- popularity 28




(svAdibhyazznuH) (/znu)

svAdibhyaH znuH ONPANINI 31073
su etc get znu (before hard doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 267 vikaraNa

Exception to kartarizap. Some roots get znu whenever ordinary roots would get zap, that is, before a hard doer affix.

These are some such roots --

su "squeeze" 05.0001,

zru "hear" 01.1092,

zak "be able to" 05.0017,

Ap "get" 05.0016.

These are called znuclass roots, class five roots, or svAdi roots (see verb classes ).

Examples --

su + laT mas → * su + znu + massunumas "we squeeze"

zak + laT tip → * zak + znu + tip hardsoft zakno + tizaknoti "he can"

Back to verb classes .

KAZIKA SUJ abhiSave, ity evam Adibhyo dhAtubhyaH znupratyayo bhavati. zapo 'pavAdaH. sunoti. sinoti.

(If the link to zru 01.1092 is broken now, that means that the other website finally fixed the mistake that placed zru inside the zapclass. Just look up zru in there.)

443 letters. -- 31D.bse 462 -- popularity 17




(zruvazzRca) (/zR)

zruvaH zR ca ONPANINI 31074
zru to zR (before znu).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 268

This rule makes zru "hear" plus znu into zRNu --

zru ( before hard doer ) → zru + znu → * zR + nu Natvam zRNu

As in --

zru + laT tipzRNu + tip hardsoft zRNoti "hears"

zru + laT jhizRNu + jhizRNu + anti''' huznuvo zRNvanti "they hear"

zru + laG jhizRNu + jhizRNu + ant''' luGlaG azRNu + ant huznuvo azRNvant saMyogA azRNvan "they heard"

zru + liG maszRNu + maszRNu + yAma'''zRNuyAma "we would hear"

zru + zatRzRNu + at huznuvo zRNvat- "hearing"

KAZIKA zruvaH znupratyayo bhavati, tatsaMniyogena zruvaH zR ityayam Adezo bhavati. zRNoti, zRNutaH, zRNvanti.

270 letters. -- 31D.bse 507 -- popularity 5

682 (/hi''' to /luk) after an !u that is not after @cluster and belongs to an affix.

683 (/u /znu that does not follow a @cluster to) /lopa before !m !v optionally.




(tudAdibhya) (/za)

tud'-AdibhyaH zaH ONPANINI 31077
tud etc get (z)a (before hard doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 269 vikaraNa

Exception to kartarizap --

" Some roots get (z)a when a normal root would get zap, that is to say, when they are before a hard doer affix. "

Such roots are called "class six roots", " zaclass roots", or "tudAdi roots". Examples --

tud + laT tip → * tud + za + tiptudati "hits, bullies"

kSip + laT tip → * kSip + za + tipkSipati "throws"

iS + laT tip → * iS + za + tipiccha + tiicchati "wants"

This za always has label G (from hard apit is Git ). That's why puganta did not work in the examples above.

When a zaclass root that ends in R is before za, the R turns into riy, by riGzayagliGkSu. There are four such roots pR 06.0138 mR 06.0139 dR 06.0147 and dhR 06.0148 --

mR + laT ta → * mR + za + ta riGzayagliGkSu mriy + a + ta Tita mriyate "dies"

priyate "is busy"

driyate "respects"

dhriyati "is steady"

Back to verb classes .

KAZIKA tuda vyathane ityevam Adibhyo dhAtubhyaH zapratyayo bhavati. zapo 'pavAdaH. zakAraH sArvadhAtukasaMjJArthaH. tudati. nudati.

551 letters. -- 31D.bse 537 -- popularity 35




(rudhAdibhya) (@z)

rudhAdibhyaH znam ONPANINI 31078
rudh etc. get znam.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 270

Exception to kartarizap. Some roots (for instance rudh), before hard doer affixes, get (z)na(m) instead of the usual zap. Those roots are called znamclass, rudhAdi, or "verb class seven". See verb classes .

Example --

yuj + laT mip → * yuj + znam + mi midaco yunajmi "I join"

The z label of (z)na(m) made znam get label G by hard apit is Git , and that G kept yuj from turning into yoj by puganta. The m label of (z)na(m) made midaco work, so the na was added after the u of yuj, not after the j as usual.

More examples --

rudh + laT tip → * rudh + znam + tiprunadh + ti jhaSasta;thordho'dhaH runadh + dhi jhalAJjazjhazi runad + dhi Natvam ruNaddhi "obstructs, stops"

chid + laT tip → * chid + znam + tip midaco chinad + ti kharica chinatti "cuts"

tRh + laT tip → * tRnahti tRNaha::im tRnehti hoDhaH tRneDhti jhaSastatho tRneDhdhi STunA tRneDhDhi DhoDhelopaH tRneDhi Natvam tRNeDhi "crushes"

rudh + laT jhi → * rudh + znam + jhirunadh + jhirunadh + anti''' znasora rundhanti nazcA ruMdhaMti anusvA rundhanti "they obstruct, stop"

KAZIKA rudhir AvaraNe ity evam Adibhyo dhAtubhyaH znam pratyayo bhavati. zapo 'pavAdaH. ma-kAro deza-vidhy-arthaH. zakAraH znAn nalopa iti vizeSaNArthaH. ruNaddhi. bhinatti.

638 letters. -- 31D.bse 630 -- popularity 14




(tanAdikR) (/u)

tanAdi;kRJbhya:: uH ONPANINI 31079
tan etc, and kR, get u (instead of zap).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 271 vikaraNa

Exception to kartarizap. Some roots get u instead of zap when before a hard doer affix.

There are ten such roots. The nine tanAdi (a.k.a. uclass) --

tan san kSaN kSiN RN tRN ghRN van man

and the very common root kR (Du)kR(J) karoti 08.0010 "do, make", which has no verb class, but gets u anyway.

As the tanAdi all end in n or N, after they get u they look like a znuclass --

tan + laT tip → * tan + u + tip hardsoft tanoti "extends"

tan + laT jhi → * tan + u + jhitanu + anti'''tanvanti "they extend"

tan + loT sip → * tan + u + siptan + u + hi''' utazca tanu "extend!"

The kR root however does some strange things -- see kR with u .

Back to verb classes

KAZIKA tanu vistAre ityevam Adibhyo dhAtubhyaH kRJazca upratyayo bhavati. zapo 'pavAdaH. tanoti. sanoti. kSaNoti. kRJaH khalvapi karoti. tanAdipAThAdeva upratyaye siddhe karoterupAdAnaM niyamArtham, anyat tanAdikAryaM mA bhUtiti. tanAdibhyas tathAsoH iti vibhASA sico lug na bhavati. akRta. akRthAH.

445 letters. -- 31D.bse 736 -- popularity 19




(kryAdibhyazznA) (/znA)

kry..-AdibhyaH znA ONPANINI 31081
krI and others get (z)nA (before hard doer)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 272

Exception to kartarizap. Certain roots, for instance krI "buy", when they are before a hard doer affix, get (z)nA instead of zap.

Such roots are called kryAdi roots, znaclass roots, or "class nine roots". inria reader labels the verbs that have znA inside with [9].

This znA affix keeps its A before aGit affixes ( tip sip mip ) --

krI + laT tip → * krI + znA + ti Natvam krINAti "buys"

Before consonant Git affixes, the A becomes I by IhalyaghoH --

krI + laT mas → * krI + nA + mas sArvadhAtukamapit krI + nA + mas(G) IhalyaghoH krinImas Natvam krINImas "we buy"

Before vowel Git affixes, the A disappears by znAbhya --

krI + laT jhi → * krI + nA + jhikrI + nA + anti''' znAbhya krIn + anti Natvam krINanti "they buy"

Back to verb classes

KAZIKA DukrIJ dravyavinimaye ityevam AdibhyaH dhAtubhyaH znA pratyayo bhavati. zapo 'pavAdaH. zakAraH sArvadhAtukasaMjJArthaH. krINAti. prINAti.

See znA examples for more examples.

516 letters. -- 31D.bse 778 -- popularity 19




(stambhustumbhu) (!sta)

stambhu-stumbhu-skambhu-skumbhu-skuJbhyaH znuz ca ONPANINI 31082
stambh stumbh skambh skumbh sku get either znu or znA.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 273

stabhnAti

stabhnoti

KAZIKA AdyAzcatvAro dhAtavaH sautrAH, skuJApravaNe, etebhyaH znA pratyayo bhavati, znuH ca. stabhnAti, stabhnoti. stubhnAti, stubhnoti. skabhnAti, skabhnoti. skubhnAti, skubhnoti. skunAti, skunoti. udittvapratijJAnAt sautrANAm api dhAtUnAM sarvArthatvaM vijJAyate, na etad vikaraNaviSayatvam eva.

18 letters. -- 31D.bse 875 -- popularity none




(halazznazzA) (!halaz)

halaH znaH zAnaj @jhau ONPANINI 31083
After consonant, znA to zAnac before hi'''.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 274

That hi''', being after Ana, will always be luked by atoheH. The zAnac affix gets G label by hard apit is Git , and that G makes grahijyA work and puganta not work in these examples --

grah + loT sipgrah + znA + hi''' → * grah + zAnac + hi atoheH grah + Ana sArvadhAtukamapit grah + Ana(G) grahijyA gRh + Ana Natvam gRhANa "take!"

muSANa "steal!"

puSANa "prosper!"

(All of these have accent on the na, see citaH.)

This rule won't work after roots that end in vowels --

krI + znA + hi''' → .. → krINIhi "buy!"

or before tiG affixes other than hi''' --

muS + laT tip → .. → muSNAti "steals"

KAZIKA hala uttarasya znApratyayasya zanaj-Adezo bhavati hau parataH. muSANa. puSANa. halaH iti kim? krINIhi. hau iti kim? muSNAti. znaH iti sthAni-nirdezaH Adeza-sampratyayArthaH. itarathA hi pratyayAntaram eva sarvaviSayaM vijJAyeta.

382 letters. -- 31D.bse 881 -- popularity 2
















31003 syA tAs cli ←

chunk 18: 31067 verb classes

→ 31091 root affixes