24072 some vikaraNa ←
chunk 16: 31005 sanAdyanta roots
→ 31003 syA tAs cli
31005 san after gup tij kit has special senses. guptijkidbhyassan
31006 after mAn badh dAn zAn, and the stammer lengthens. mAnbadhadAnzAnbhyodIrghazcAbhyAsasya
31007 Optionally, use to mean "wanna, gonna". dhAtoHkarmaNassamAnakartRkAdicchAyAMvA
31008 Add kyac after noun for oneself". supaAtmanaHkyac
31009 kAmyac too . kAmyacca
31011 kyaG may mean "behaves like", and deletes s. kartuHkyaGsalopazca
31018 kyaG after sukha etc means "feel one's own". sukhAdibhyaHkartRvedanAyAm
31022 Some roots optionally get yaG to mean repetition or intensity. dhAtorekAcohalAdeHkriyAsamabhihAreyaG
31023 yaG after verbs of going only means "crookedly". nityaGkauTilyegatau
31024 Some roots take yaG when despising the manner. lupasadacarajapajabhadahadazagRRbhyobhAvagarhAyAm
31025 satyApa and sundry, and the Nichclass, get Nic. satyApapAzarUpavINAtUlazlokasenAlomatvacavarmavarNacUrNacurAdibhyoNic
31026 Add i to mean causing. hetumatica
31027 kaNDU etc get yak'. kaNDvAdibhyoyak
31028 gup dhUp vicch paN pan get Aya . gupUdhUpavicchipaNipanibhyaAyaH
31031 The three previous rules are optional before soft. AyAdayaArdhadhAtukevA
31032 sanAdi-enders are roots. sanAdyantAdhAtavaH
dhAtoH karmaNaH samAna-kartRkAd icchAyAM vA ONPANINI 31007
Optionally, use ( san) to mean "wanna, gonna".
^ M+ C+ 219 san
( inria flags the words that have this affix with " des".)
So, adding the affix sa(n) after a root that means "jump" we get a root that means "want to jump", "be going to jump". Example --
The root kR means "do, make".
kR plus san makes cikIrSa.
cikIrSa means "want to make" or "be about to make" by this rule.
and is a root by sanAdyantA.
Being a root, this cikIrSa can get tenses --
cikIrSa + laT mahi → cikIrSa + zap + mahi →atoguNe cikIrSa + mahi → cikIrSa + mahe''' →atodIrghoyaJi cikIrSAmahe "we wanna jump, we gonna jump"
and kRt affixes --
cikIrSa + a'' + su cikIrSA "the wish to make"
cikIrSa + u' + su cikIrSus "that is wanting to make, that is going to make"
yuyutsa + u' + jas →atolopaH yuyutsu + as →jasica yuyutsavas "that are going to fight"
These roots that end in san are called desiderative roots ( des in inria) by some, but sananta is less of a misnomer. Shorter too.
The verbs made from these roots are uncommon, even in the epics, but their a'' u' derivatives are often found.
The seven roots guptijkid and mAnbadhadAnzAn have a san affix that does not mean wisghing.
See san summary for a list of rules related to san.
dhAtor ekAco halAdeH kriyA;samabhihAre yaG ONPANINI 31022
Some roots optionally get yaG to mean repetition or intensity.
^ M- C+ 224
After certain roots, we may add the sanAdi affix ya(G) to express that the action is repeated, strong, or complete.
pacati "he cooks"
pApacyate "he cooks often; he cooks completely"
jvalati tArA "the star shines"
jAjvalyate tArA "the star shines brightly"
The yaG roots pApacya(G), jAjvalya(G), bobhUya(G) are formed this way --
pac "cook" + yaG →sanyaGoH papacya →dIrghokitaH pApacya "cook repeatedly or intensely"
jval + yaG →sanyaGoH jajvalya →dIrghokitaH jAjvalya "repeatedly or intensely shine"
bhU + yaG →sanyaGoH bhUbhUya →abhyAsecarca bUbhUya →guNoyaGlukoH bobhUya "repeatedly or intensely be"
The G label makes these roots bendy (by anudAttaGi).
See also the exceptions --
Some roots take yaG when despising the manner .
yaG after verbs of going only means "crookedly" .
punaH punaH pacati "he cooks again and again"
bhRzaJM jvalati tArA "the star shines brightly"
There is another sort of yaG, the yaGluk, that gets no ya and no G label. It is even less common than the yaG.
satyApa;pAza; rUpa;vINA; tUla;zloka; senA;loma; tvaca;varma; varNa;cUrNa; cur'-Adibhyo Nic ONPANINI 31025
satyApa and sundry, and the nichclass, get Nic.
^ M- C+ 227
This rule has two parts:
(1) the twelve nouns mentioned in this rule, with Nic added, make roots with special meanings. Even though Nic, being a kRt affix, cannot be ordinarily added to nouns.
vi + pAza- "a snare" + Nic + laT tip vipAzayati "unsnares, sets it loose from the trap"
varNa- "color" + Nic + laT tip varNayati "paints, depicts, describes"
(2) the nichclass roots always get Nic affix, with no change of meaning (see verb classes ).
cur + laT tip → cur "steal" + Nic + tip →puganta cor + i + tip →sanAdyantAdhAtavaH cori @root + tip → cori + zap + tip →hardsoft core + zap + tip →ecoya corayati "steals"
Even though the Nic is always added, it is often deleted by other rules. For example, in coryate "it is being stolen", the Nic was added after root cur making it into cori, but then the i disappeared before yak by NeraniTi.
There are two sorts of Nic affix. The Nichclass Nic added by this rule, and the causative Nic added by hetumatica.
inria tries to flag the Nichclass Nic verbs with "", and the causative Nic verbs with " ca". But as the only way of knowing if the Nic was added because it means causing, or because the root is a nichclass, is from the meaning of the verb in context, inria will sometimes fail and tell you that a  is a ca or that a ca is a . So, be careful and don't let the machine make your thinking for you.
hetumati ca ONPANINI 31026
Add (N)i(c) to mean causing.
^ M- C+ 228
There are two sorts of Nic . This rule explains the causative Nic.
When we add Nic after roots that mean "see", "jump", "fall", "spin" we get roots that mean "make others see", "make others jump", "make others fall", "make others spin".
dRz + Nic →puganta darzi "cause to see, show"
plu + Nic →acoJNiti plau + i →ecoya plAvi "cause to jump"
pat + Nic →ata_upa pAti "cause to fall, knock down, fell"
vRt + Nic →puganta varti "cause to spin"
These darzi plAvi etc are roots because rule sanAdyantA says so. Being roots, we can add kRt affixes or tenses to them. Examples --
darzi + kta → darzita- "shown"
darzi + ktvA → darzi + itvA →hardsoft darze + itvA →ecoya darzayitvA "after showing"
darzi + laT jhi → darzi + zap + jhi → darzi + zap + anti''' →hardsoft darze + a + anti →ecoya darzaya + anti →atoguNe darzayanti "they make others see, they show"
plAvi + laT jhi plAvayanti "they make others jump"
pAti + laG tip apAtayat "he made (it) fall"
varti + loT sip vartaya "make it spin!"
Example sentences --
bAlaGM gajam adarzayan "they showed the kid the elephant"
bhekamM bAlAH plAvayanti "the kids make the frog jump"
sAlAm apAtayad rAmaH "rAma fell the sAlA tree"
bhramiM vartaya "turn the potter-wheel!"
Technically this Nic can be added to all simple roots. In practice, however, adding it to nichclass roots is a real bad idea, and most often avoided.
san-Ady-antA$ dhAtavaH ONPANINI 31032
sanAdi-enders are roots.
^ C+ 232
The sanAdi affixes, a.k.a. rootmaker affixes, are the twelve affixes described from 31005 guptijkidbhyassan down to this rule, 31032, namely --
san kyac kAmyac
vayac kyaG kyaS
NiG Nic yaG
yak' Aya IyaG
These affixes can be added to most roots, and the result of adding them is a new root.
pac is a root, and means "cook"
joining pac + Nic we get pAci (with ata::upa)
by this rule, pAci is a root
as it is a root, we can do this --
pAci + laT tip pAcayati "he makes (them) cook"
pAci + tRc pAcayitR- "one that makes others cook"
Incidentally -- the roots made with Nic all take zap by kartarizap, all are seT, and all are flattybendy.
Also incidentally -- the affix cvi is not in this list, and does not make roots, but it has a similar effect in the meaning. It turns frog into frogify.
Back to types of affixes .
24072 some vikaraNa ←
chunk 16: 31005 sanAdyanta roots
→ 31003 syA tAs cli