24072 some vikaraNa ←

chunk 16: 31005 sanAdyanta roots

→ 31003 syA tAs cli

31005 san after gup tij kit has special senses. guptijkidbhyassan
31006 after mAn badh dAn zAn, and the stammer lengthens. mAnbadhadAnzAnbhyodIrghazcAbhyAsasya
31007 Optionally, use to mean "wanna, gonna". dhAtoHkarmaNassamAnakartRkAdicchAyAMvA
31008 Add kyac after noun for oneself". supaAtmanaHkyac
31009 kAmyac too . kAmyacca
31011 kyaG may mean "behaves like", and deletes s. kartuHkyaGsalopazca
31018 kyaG after sukha etc means "feel one's own". sukhAdibhyaHkartRvedanAyAm
31022 Some roots optionally get yaG to mean repetition or intensity. dhAtorekAcohalAdeHkriyAsamabhihAreyaG
31023 yaG after verbs of going only means "crookedly". nityaGkauTilyegatau
31024 Some roots take yaG when despising the manner. lupasadacarajapajabhadahadazagRRbhyobhAvagarhAyAm
31025 satyApa and sundry, and the Nichclass, get Nic. satyApapAzarUpavINAtUlazlokasenAlomatvacavarmavarNacUrNacurAdibhyoNic
31026 Add i to mean causing. hetumatica
31027 kaNDU etc get yak'. kaNDvAdibhyoyak
31028 gup dhUp vicch paN pan get Aya . gupUdhUpavicchipaNipanibhyaAyaH
31031 The three previous rules are optional before soft. AyAdayaArdhadhAtukevA
31032 sanAdi-enders are roots. sanAdyantAdhAtavaH


gup;tij;kidbhyaH san ONPANINI 31005
san after gup tij kit has special senses.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 217

Rule san says that san means "want to". Yet these three roots, with san, do not mean "want to"; they have unrelated meanings. Look --

gup "hide, protect" + san → .. → jugupsa "find something disgusting"

tij "be sharp" + san → .. → titiksa "endure patiently"

kit "plan" + san → .. → cikitsa "heal"

jugupsa and cikitsa are bendy --

jugupsa + laT ta → .. → jugupsate "he finds it disgusting"


and titikSa is flattybendy --

titikSa + laT tip → .. → titikSati

titikSa + loT thAs → .. → titikSa + sva'''titikSasva

As in --

tAMs titikSasva bhArata "endure them patiently, arjuna"

This rule is an exception in advance to rule san. Therefore, these roots cannot have the ordinary meaning "want to" that san would give them. To mean wanting, say goptum icchati "wants to protect", etc.


mAn;badha; dAn;zAnbhyo dIrghaz c' .AbhyAsasya ONPANINI 31006
( san has special senses) after mAn badh dAn zAn, and the stammer lengthens.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 218 san

Rule san says that san means "want to". Yet these three roots, with san, do not mean "want to"; they have unrelated meanings. And they stammer has a long vowel.

Only examples --

mAn + san sanyaGoH mAmAnsa sanyataH mimAnsa → * mImAnsa nazcA mImAMsa "investigate"

badh + san throwback bhadh + san → .. → bIbhatsa "loathe"

dIdAMsa "straighten"

zIzAMsa "sharpen"

These are all bendy.

Again, these cannot get the senses "to want to honor", "to want to bind" etc that the san rule would have given them otherwise.


dhAtoH karmaNaH samAna-kartRkAd icchAyAM vA ONPANINI 31007
Optionally, use ( san) to mean "wanna, gonna".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 219 san

( inria flags the words that have this affix with " des".)

So, adding the affix sa(n) after a root that means "jump" we get a root that means "want to jump", "be going to jump". Example --

The root kR means "do, make".

kR plus san makes cikIrSa.

cikIrSa means "want to make" or "be about to make" by this rule.

and is a root by sanAdyantA.

Being a root, this cikIrSa can get tenses --

cikIrSa + laT mahicikIrSa + zap + mahi atoguNe cikIrSa + mahicikIrSa + mahe''' atodIrghoyaJi cikIrSAmahe "we wanna jump, we gonna jump"

and kRt affixes --

cikIrSa + a'' + su → .. → cikIrSA "the wish to make"

cikIrSa + u' + su → .. → cikIrSus "that is wanting to make, that is going to make"

yuyutsa + u' + jas atolopaH yuyutsu + as jasica yuyutsavas "that are going to fight"

These roots that end in san are called desiderative roots ( des in inria) by some, but sananta is less of a misnomer. Shorter too.

The verbs made from these roots are uncommon, even in the epics, but their a'' u' derivatives are often found.

The seven roots guptijkid and mAnbadhadAnzAn have a san affix that does not mean wisghing.

See san summary for a list of rules related to san.


supa:: AtmanaH kyac ONPANINI 31008
Add kyac after noun (optionally, to mean "want it) for oneself".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 220

The sanAdi affix (k)ya(c) will turn a noun like putrAn "sons" into a root putrIya meaning "to want to have sons". Details --

AtmanaH putram icchati "wants to have a son" → * putram + kyac + laT tipputrIya + tip → .. → putrIyati "wants to have a son"


kAmyac ca ONPANINI 31009
kAmyac too (turns nouns into roots meaning "want it for oneself").mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 221

Example. Adding kAmya(c) after putram or putrAn we get --

putrAn + kAmyac supodhA putrakAmya "want to have a son"

As in --

putrakAmya + laT tip → .. → putrakAmyati "wants to have a son of her own"

Exact same meaning as the putrIyati of previous rule.

The k of this affix will make sopadAdau work --

payas + kAmyac svAdiSva payas ( word ) + kAmya kharava payaHkAmya sopadAdau payaskAmya "want milk"


kartuH kyaG sa-lopaz ca ONPANINI 31011
kyaG may mean "behaves like", and deletes s.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 222

The (k)ya(G) affix turns a noun into a root that means "behaves like" (by this rule) or "feels" by sukhAdibhyaH.

Example. zyenas "hawk, eagle", with kyaG, makes the root zyenAya "behave like a hawk". Formation --

zyenas + kyaG supodhA zyena + ya akRtsArva zyenA + yazyenAya ( root )

As in --

Acarati kAkazH zyena:: iva → * zyenAyate kAkaH "the crow behaves like a hawk"

apsaras- + jas + kyaG supodhA apsaras- + ya → * apsara + ya akRtsArva apsarA + yaapsarAya "behave like a nymph, slut around"

As in --

Acaranti kumAryo 'psarasa:: iva → * apsarAyante kumAryaH "the princesses behave like nymphs"

In the case of payas, the dropping of s is optional, so we may say either payAyate or payasyate for "behaves like milk, flows".


sukhAdibhyaH kartR-vedanAyAm ONPANINI 31018
kyaG after sukha etc means "feel one's own".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 223

Example. Instead of saying Atmano duHkhaM vetti for "feels own pain", we can use a duHkhAya root made this way --

duHkham + kyaG supodhA duHkha + kyaG akRtsArva duHkhAya "feel own pain"

As in --

duHkhAya + laT taduHkhAya + zap ta → .. → duHkhAyate "he feels his own pain"

The sukha class nounbases are:

sukha duHkha tRpta

gahana kRcchra asra

alIka pratIpa karuNa

kRpaNa soDha


dhAtor ekAco halAdeH kriyA;samabhihAre yaG ONPANINI 31022
Some roots optionally get yaG to mean repetition or intensity.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 224

After certain roots, we may add the sanAdi affix ya(G) to express that the action is repeated, strong, or complete.

Examples --

pacati "he cooks"

pApacyate "he cooks often; he cooks completely"

jvalati tArA "the star shines"

jAjvalyate tArA "the star shines brightly"

The yaG roots pApacya(G), jAjvalya(G), bobhUya(G) are formed this way --

pac "cook" + yaG sanyaGoH papacya dIrghokitaH pApacya "cook repeatedly or intensely"

jval + yaG sanyaGoH jajvalya dIrghokitaH jAjvalya "repeatedly or intensely shine"

bhU + yaG sanyaGoH bhUbhUya abhyAsecarca bUbhUya guNoyaGlukoH bobhUya "repeatedly or intensely be"

The G label makes these roots bendy (by anudAttaGi).

See also the exceptions --

Some roots take yaG when despising the manner .

yaG after verbs of going only means "crookedly" .

punaH punaH pacati "he cooks again and again"

bhRzaJM jvalati tArA "the star shines brightly"

There is another sort of yaG, the yaGluk, that gets no ya and no G label. It is even less common than the yaG.


nityaM kauTilye gatau ONPANINI 31023
yaG after verbs of going only means "crookedly".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 225

The roots that mean moving, such as kram car gam plu, take yaG only to mean tortuous motion --

caGMkramyate "he walks crookedly or tortuously"

After these roots, we can't use yaG in the usual sense of repetition or intensity, so we say instead --

bhRzaGM krAmati "he walks a lot"


lupa;sada; cara;japa; jabha;daha; daza;gRRbhyo bhAva-garhAyAm ONPANINI 31024
Some roots take yaG when despising the manner.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 226

These are the roots lup sad car jap jabh dah daz gRR.

So the root lolupyA, formed from lup "cut" + yaG --

lup + yaG sanyaGoH lulup + ya guNoyaGlukoH lolupya

cannot have the ordinary yaG meaning of "cut repeteadly"; it only means to cut badly, as in --

sazimiM lolupyate "he's cutting the sashimi badly"

mantraJ jaJjapyate brAhmaNaH "The brahmin is botching up his veda recitation"

If we want to express the ordinary meaning of the yaG, we must use some other means --

bhRzaM sazimiM lumpati "he's cutting sashimi very intently"

mantraJM japati japati brAhmaNaH "the brahmin keeps reciting and reciting the veda"

kaSTanM dhiG mantraJM japati vRSalaH "wtf, a zUdra is reciting the veda!"

no matter if the zUdra is reciting well or badly.


satyApa;pAza; rUpa;vINA; tUla;zloka; senA;loma; tvaca;varma; varNa;cUrNa; cur'-Adibhyo Nic ONPANINI 31025
satyApa and sundry, and the nichclass, get Nic.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 227

This rule has two parts:

(1) the twelve nouns mentioned in this rule, with Nic added, make roots with special meanings. Even though Nic, being a kRt affix, cannot be ordinarily added to nouns.

vi + pAza- "a snare" + Nic + laT tip → .. → vipAzayati "unsnares, sets it loose from the trap"

varNa- "color" + Nic + laT tip → .. → varNayati "paints, depicts, describes"

(2) the nichclass roots always get Nic affix, with no change of meaning (see verb classes ).

cur + laT tipcur "steal" + Nic + tip puganta cor + i + tip sanAdyantAdhAtavaH cori @root + tipcori + zap + tip hardsoft core + zap + tip ecoya corayati "steals"

Even though the Nic is always added, it is often deleted by other rules. For example, in coryate "it is being stolen", the Nic was added after root cur making it into cori, but then the i disappeared before yak by NeraniTi.

There are two sorts of Nic affix. The Nichclass Nic added by this rule, and the causative Nic added by hetumatica.

inria tries to flag the Nichclass Nic verbs with "[10]", and the causative Nic verbs with " ca". But as the only way of knowing if the Nic was added because it means causing, or because the root is a nichclass, is from the meaning of the verb in context, inria will sometimes fail and tell you that a [10] is a ca or that a ca is a [10]. So, be careful and don't let the machine make your thinking for you.


hetumati ca ONPANINI 31026
Add (N)i(c) to mean causing.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 228

There are two sorts of Nic . This rule explains the causative Nic.

When we add Nic after roots that mean "see", "jump", "fall", "spin" we get roots that mean "make others see", "make others jump", "make others fall", "make others spin".

dRz + Nic puganta darzi "cause to see, show"

plu + Nic acoJNiti plau + i ecoya plAvi "cause to jump"

pat + Nic ata_upa pAti "cause to fall, knock down, fell"

vRt + Nic puganta varti "cause to spin"

These darzi plAvi etc are roots because rule sanAdyantA says so. Being roots, we can add kRt affixes or tenses to them. Examples --

darzi + ktadarzita- "shown"

darzi + ktvAdarzi + itvA hardsoft darze + itvA ecoya darzayitvA "after showing"

darzi + laT jhidarzi + zap + jhidarzi + zap + anti''' hardsoft darze + a + anti ecoya darzaya + anti atoguNe darzayanti "they make others see, they show"

plAvi + laT jhi → .. → plAvayanti "they make others jump"

pAti + laG tip → .. → apAtayat "he made (it) fall"

varti + loT sip → .. → vartaya "make it spin!"

Example sentences --

bAlaGM gajam adarzayan "they showed the kid the elephant"

bhekamM bAlAH plAvayanti "the kids make the frog jump"

sAlAm apAtayad rAmaH "rAma fell the sAlA tree"

bhramiM vartaya "turn the potter-wheel!"

Technically this Nic can be added to all simple roots. In practice, however, adding it to nichclass roots is a real bad idea, and most often avoided.


kaNDv;Adibhyo yak ONPANINI 31027
kaNDU etc get yak'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 229

The kaNDU-class nounbases, such as kaNDUJ "itch, scratch", can be used as roots, and then get ya(k)' --

kaNDU + yak'kaNDUya "scratch"

kaNDUya + laT ta → .. → kaNDUyate "he scratches himself"


gupU;dhUpa; vicchi;paNi; panibhya:: AyaH ONPANINI 31028
gup dhUp vicch paN pan get Aya (with no change of meaning).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 230

Examples --

gup + laT tip → * gup + Aya + ti hardsoft gopAya + tigopAya + zap + tipgopAyati "protects"

dhUpAyati "heats"

vicchAyati "approaches"

paNAyati "praises"

panAyati "praises"

This Aya is optional because AyAdaya below says so. If we don't apply this rule, then we get gopayati dhUpayati vicchayati, with just Nic, and paNate panate, with zap.

This rule won't work on the paN root that means "makes a contract" --

zatasya paNate "hires for a hundred"


AyAdaya:: ArdhadhAtuke vA ONPANINI 31031
The three previous rules are optional before soft.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 231

Example. Rule gupU adds Aya after gup when gup is before hard tip or before soft tAs --

gup + laT tip gupU gup + Aya + tip → .. → gopAyati "he protects"

gup + luT tipgup + tAs + tip gupU gup + Aya + tAs + tip → .. → gopAyitA "he will protect"

This rule clarifies that the Aya is compulsory before hard, but optional before soft. So, before soft tAs we may also say --

gup + luT tipgup + tAs + tip → .. → goptA "he will protect"

Similarly --






san-Ady-antA$ dhAtavaH ONPANINI 31032
sanAdi-enders are roots.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 232

The sanAdi affixes, a.k.a. rootmaker affixes, are the twelve affixes described from 31005 guptijkidbhyassan down to this rule, 31032, namely --

san kyac kAmyac

vayac kyaG kyaS

NiG Nic yaG

yak' Aya IyaG

These affixes can be added to most roots, and the result of adding them is a new root.


pac is a root, and means "cook"

joining pac + Nic we get pAci (with ata::upa)

by this rule, pAci is a root

as it is a root, we can do this --

pAci + laT tip → .. → pAcayati "he makes (them) cook"

pAci + tRc → .. → pAcayitR- "one that makes others cook"

Incidentally -- the roots made with Nic all take zap by kartarizap, all are seT, and all are flattybendy.

Also incidentally -- the affix cvi is not in this list, and does not make roots, but it has a similar effect in the meaning. It turns frog into frogify.

Back to types of affixes .

24072 some vikaraNa ←

chunk 16: 31005 sanAdyanta roots

→ 31003 syA tAs cli