24072 some vikaraNa ←

chunk 16: 31005 sanAdyanta roots

→ 31003 syA tAs cli

31005 san after gup tij kit has special senses. guptijkidbhyassan
31006 after mAn badh dAn zAn, and the stammer lengthens. mAnbadhadAnzAnbhyodIrghazcAbhyAsasya
31007 Optionally, use to mean "wanna, gonna". dhAtoHkarmaNassamAnakartRkAdicchAyAMvA
31008 Add kyac after noun for oneself". supaAtmanaHkyac
31009 kAmyac too . kAmyacca
31011 kyaG may mean "behaves like", and deletes s. kartuHkyaGsalopazca
31018 kyaG after sukha etc means "feel one's own". sukhAdibhyaHkartRvedanAyAm
31020 NiG after puccha- bhANDa- cIvara-. pucchabhANDacIvarANNiG
31021 Nic after muNDa mizra zlakSNa, lavaNa vrata vastra, hala kala kRta, tUsta . muNDamizrazlakSNalavaNavratavastrahalakalakRtatUstebhyoNic
31022 One-vowel roots that start with a consonant may get yaG to mean repetition or intensity. dhAtorekAcohalAdeHkriyAsamabhihAreyaG
31023 yaG after verbs of going only means "crookedly". nityaGkauTilyegatau
31024 lup sad car jap jabh dah daz gq take yaG when despising the manner. lupasadacarajapajabhadahadazagRRbhyobhAvagarhAyAm
31025 satyApa and sundry, and the Nichclass, get Nic. satyApapAzarUpavINAtUlazlokasenAlomatvacavarmavarNacUrNacurAdibhyoNic
31026 Add i to mean causing. hetumatica
31027 kaNDU etc get yak'. kaNDvAdibhyoyak
31028 gup dhUp vicch paN pan get Aya . gupUdhUpavicchipaNipanibhyaAyaH
31030 kam gets NiG kamerNiG
31031 The three previous rules are optional before soft. AyAdayaArdhadhAtukevA
31032 sanAdi-enders are roots. sanAdyantAdhAtavaH




(guptijkidbhya) (!gup)

gup;tij;kidbhyaH san ONPANINI 31005
san after gup tij kit has special senses.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 226

Exception in advance to !!dhAtoHkarmaNaH, that says that the san affix gives the meaning "want to". These three roots, with san added, get instead these three special meanings --

gup "hide, protect" + san → .. → jugupsa "find something disgusting"

tij "be sharp" + san → .. → titikSa "endure patiently"

kit "plan" + san → .. → cikitsa "heal"

these forms cannot mean "want to", we have to say goptum icchati "wants to hide" etc instead.

jugupsa and cikitsa are bendy --

jugupsa + laT ta → .. → jugupsate "he finds it disgusting"

cikitsate "he heals"

and titikSa is flattybendy --

titikSa + laT tip → .. → titikSati "he endures"

titikSa + loT thAs → .. → titikSa + sva'''titikSasva "he endures"

As in --

tAMs titikSasva bhArata "endure them patiently, arjuna"

KAZIKA gupa gopane, tija nizAne, kita nivAse etebhyo dhAtubhyaH san pratyayo bhavati. pratyayasaMjJA ca adhikRtaiva. jugupsate. titikSate. cikitsati. nindAkSamAvyAdhipratIkAreSu sanniSate 'nyatra yathA prAptaM pratyayA bhavanti. yopayati. tejayati. saGketayati. gupAdiSvanubandhakaraNam AtmanepadArtham.

By a vArttika to !!dhAtoHkarmaNaH, these three sananta roots can take a second san in the ordinary sense of "want to" --

jugupsa + san + laT tajugupsiSate "wants to find it disgusting"

686 letters. -- 31.bse 103 -- popularity 4

222 [@affix]es start here.

244 [/sanAdi]-enders are [@root]s.

275 After @root.




(mAnbadhadA) (!mAn)

mAn;badha; dAn;zAnbhyo dIrghaz c' .AbhyAsasya ONPANINI 31006
( san has special senses) after mAn badh dAn zAn, and the stammer lengthens.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 227 san

This rule says that these four roots, when they get san, cannot get the ordinary meanings "want to" or "be about to", but instead they get some other meanings, and the stammer lengthens.

These are the four roots with san added, and their meanings --

mImAMsa "investigate"

bIbhatsa "loathe"

dIdAMsa "straighten"

zIzAMsa "sharpen"

KAZIKA mAn pUjAyAm, badha bandhane, dAna avakhaNDane, zAna avatejate, ityetebhyo dhAtubhyaH san pratyayo bhavati, abhyAsasya ca ikArasya dIrghAdezo bhavati. mImAMsate. bIbhatsate. dIdAMsate. zIzAMsate. uttarasUtre vAgrahaNaM sarvasya zeSo vijJAyate, tena kvacin na bhavaty api. mAnayati. bAdhayati. dAnayati. nizAnayati. atra api sannarthavizeSa iSyate. mAner jijJAsAyAm, badher vairUpye, dAner Arjave, zAner nizAne.

Formation of the first two --

mAn + san sanyaGoH mAmAnsa sanyataH mimAnsa → * mImAnsa nazcA mImAMsa "investigate"

badh + san throwback bhadh + san → .. → bIbhatsa "loathe"

352 letters. -- 31.bse 178 -- popularity 1




(dhAtoHkarma) (/san)

dhAtoH karmaNaH samAna-kartRkAd icchAyAM vA ONPANINI 31007
Optionally, use ( san) to mean "wanna, gonna".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 228 san

( inria flags the words that have this affix with " des".)

So, adding the affix sa(n) after a root that means "jump" we get a root that means "want to jump", "be going to jump". Example --

The root kR means "do, make".

kR plus san makes cikIrSa.

cikIrSa means "want to make" or "be about to make" by this rule.

and is a root by sanAdyantA.

Being a root, this cikIrSa can get tenses --

cikIrSa + laT mahicikIrSa + zap + mahi atoguNe cikIrSa + mahicikIrSa + mahe''' atodIrghoyaJi cikIrSAmahe "we wanna jump, we gonna jump"

and kRt affixes --

cikIrSa + a'' + su → .. → cikIrSA "the wish to make"

cikIrSa + u' + su → .. → cikIrSus "that is wanting to make, that is going to make"

yuyutsa + u' + jas atolopaH yuyutsu + as jasica yuyutsavas "that are going to fight"

These roots that end in san are called desiderative roots ( des in inria) by some, but sananta is less of a misnomer. Shorter too.

The verbs made from these roots are uncommon, even in the epics, but their a'' u' derivatives are often found.

The seven roots guptijkid and mAnbadhadAnzAn have a san affix that does not mean wisghing.

See san summary for a list of rules related to san.

KAZIKA iSikarma yo dhaturiSiNaiva samAnakartRkaH, tasmAdicchAyAm arthe vA san pratyayo bhavati. karmatvaM samAnakartRkatvaM ca dhAtorarthadvArakam. karTum icchati. cikIrSati. jihIrSati. dhAtugrahanaM kim? sopasargAdutpattir mA bhUt. prakaRtum aicchat prAcikIrSat. karmaNaH iti kim? karaNAn mA bhUt. gamanena icchati. samAnakartRkatiti kim? devadattasya bhojanam icchati yajJadattaH. icchAyAm iti kim? kartuM jAnAti. vAvacanAd vAkyam api bhavati. dhAtoH iti vidhAnAdatra sanaH ArdhadhAtukasaMjJA bhavati, na pUrvatra. AzaGkAyAm upasaMkhyAnam. AzaGke patiSyati kUlam, pipatiSati kUlam. zvA mumUrSati. icchAsannantAt pratiSedho vaktavyaH. cikIrSitum icchati. vizeSaNaM kim? jugupsiSate. mImAMsiSate. zaiSikAnmatubarthIyAcchaiSiko matubarthikaH. sarUpaH pratyayo neSTaH sanantAn na saniSyate.

The fact that the sananta roots are called " desiderative" in Western grammars might give us the wrong impression that their main meaning is "desirous of". In fact, however, it looks like they main meaning is "planning to" or "about to". For instance, mumUrSanti will seldom mean "that wish to die", but rather "about to die", like Latin "morituri", or even "ready to risk their lives". Similarly yuyutsavas doesn't have to be "wanting to fight" necessarily, it might as well be "about to fight", or "getting ready to fight".

1219 letters. -- 31.bse 220 -- popularity 56




(supaAtma) (/kyac)

supa:: AtmanaH kyac ONPANINI 31008
Add kyac after noun (optionally, to mean "want it) for oneself".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 229

The sanAdi affix (k)ya(c) will turn a noun like putrAn "sons" into a root putrIya meaning "to want to have sons". Details --

AtmanaH putram icchati "wants to have a son" → * putram + kyac + laT tipputrIya + tipputrIya + zap + tip atoguNe putrIyati "wants to have a son"

putrIya is a root because rule sanAdyantA says so.

The rule is optional, so saying AtmanaH putram icchati is fine too.

The word Atmanas in the rule means that we can't use this putrIya when the doer wants others to have things --

rAjJaH putram icchaty AmAtyaH "the minister wants the king to have a son"

This rule adds kyac after ONE noun. When the desired thing is expressed with two words, we cannot use kyac --

vIryavantamM putram icchati "wants to have a valiant son"

KAZIKA karmaNa:: icchAyAM vety anuvartate. iSikarmaNaH eSitur eva Atma-sambandhinasH subantAd icchAyAm arthe vA kyac pratyayo bhavati. AtmanaH putram icchati putrIyati. sub-grahaNaGM kim? vAkyAn@ mA bhUt. mahAntamM putram icchati. AtmanaH iti kim? rAjJaH putram icchati. kakAraH naH kye 14015 iti sAmAnya-grahaNArthaH. cakAras tadavighAtArthaH. kyaci mAntAvyayapratiSedho vaktavyaH. idam icchati. uccair icchati. nIciaricchati. chandasi parecchAyAm iti vaktavyam. mA tvA vRkA aghAyavo vidan.

561 letters. -- 31.bse 612 -- popularity 9

66 Rules that apply to whatever, apply to whatever-enders.

128 Before !kya, {n} (is @wordfinal).

214 /sup to (/luk) inside @root and @nounbase.

355 /a'' (forms @feminine action nounbase) after /sanAdyanta.

996 Non-@wordfinal (!ir !ur !iv !uv of a @root) lengthen before @consonant.

1423 types of affixes

1619 @inria abbreviations




(kAmyacca) (/kAm)

kAmyac ca ONPANINI 31009
kAmyac too (turns nouns into roots meaning "want it for oneself").mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 230

Example. Adding kAmya(c) after putram or putrAn we get --

putrAn + kAmyac supodhA putrakAmya "want to have a son"

As in --

putrakAmya + laT tip → .. → putrakAmyati "wants to have a son of her own"

Exact same meaning as the putrIyati of previous rule.

The k of this affix will make sopadAdau work --

payas + kAmyac svAdiSva payas ( word ) + kAmya kharava payaHkAmya sopadAdau payaskAmya "want milk"

KAZIKA subantAt karmaNaH AtmecchAyAM kAmyac pratyayo bhavati. AtmanaH putram icchati putrakAmyati. vastrakAmyati. yogavibhAga uttaratra kyaco 'nuvRttyarthaH. kakArasya itsajJA prayojanAbhAvAn na bhavati, cakArAditvAd va kAmyacaH. upayaTkAmyati.

267 letters. -- 31.bse 695 -- popularity 5

98 !l !z /ku (in affixes are [@label]s), but not in a /taddhita

244 [/sanAdi]-enders are [@root]s.

355 /a'' (forms @feminine action nounbase) after /sanAdyanta.

1031 But with !S after !i !u.




(kartuHkyaGsa) (/kyaG)

kartuH kyaG sa-lopaz ca ONPANINI 31011
kyaG may mean "behaves like", and deletes s.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 231

The (k)ya(G) affix turns a noun into a root that means "behaves like" (by this rule) or "feels" by sukhAdibhyaH.

Example. zyenas "hawk, eagle", with kyaG, makes the root zyenAya "behave like a hawk". Formation --

zyenas + kyaG supodhA zyena + ya akRtsArva zyenA + yazyenAya ( root )

As in --

Acarati kAkazH zyena:: iva → * zyenAyate kAkaH "the crow behaves like a hawk"

These roots are all bendy, by anudAttaGi.

If the nounbase ends in s, it is trashed --

apsaras- + jas + kyaG supodhA apsaras- + ya → * apsara + ya akRtsArva apsarA + yaapsarAya "behave like a nymph, slut around"

As in --

Acaranti kumAryo 'psarasa:: iva → * apsarAyante kumAryaH "the princesses behave like nymphs"

KAZIKA AcAre ityanuvartate. upamAnAt kartuH subantAdAcAre 'rthe vA kyaGprattyayo bhavati, sakArasya ca lopo bhavati. anvAcayaziStaH salopaH, tadabhAve 'pi kyaG bhavatyeva. zyena ivAcarati kAkaH zyenAyate. kumudaM puSkarAyate. salopavidhAvapi vAgrahaNaM sambadhyate, sA ca vyavasthitavibhASA bhavati. ojaso 'psaraso nityaM payasas tu vibhASayA. sakArasyeSyate lopazH zabdazAstravicakSanaiH ojAyamAnaM yo ahiM jaghAna. ojAyate, apsarAyate. payAyate, payasyate. salopavidhau ca kartuH iti sthAnaSaSThI sampadyate, tatra alo 'ntyaniyame sati haMsAyate, sArasAyate iti salopo na bhavati. AcAre 'vagalbhaklIbahoDebhyaH kvib vA vaktavyaH. avagalbhate, avagalbhAyate. klIbate, klIbAyate. hoDate, hoDAyate. sarvaprAtipadikebhya ityeke. azva iva Acarati azvAyate, azvati. gardabhAyate, gardabhati.

466 letters. -- 31.bse 715 -- popularity 6

128 Before !kya, {n} (is @wordfinal).

239 Add {(N)i(c)} to mean causing.

244 [/sanAdi]-enders are [@root]s.

996 Non-@wordfinal (!ir !ur !iv !uv of a @root) lengthen before @consonant.




(sukhAdibhya) (!suk)

sukhAdibhyaH kartR-vedanAyAm ONPANINI 31018
kyaG after sukha etc means "feel one's own".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 232

Example. Instead of saying Atmano duHkhaM vetti for "feels own pain", we can use a duHkhAya root made this way --

duHkham + kyaG supodhA duHkha + kyaG akRtsArva duHkhAya "feel own pain"

As in --

duHkhAya + laT taduHkhAya + zap ta → .. → duHkhAyate "he feels his own pain"

The sukha class nounbases are:

sukha duHkha tRpta

gahana kRcchra asra

alIka pratIpa karuNa

kRpaNa soDha

271 letters. -- 31.bse 785 -- popularity 1




(pucchabhANDa) (/NiG)

puccha;bhANDa;cIvarAN@ NiG ONPANINI 31020
NiG after puccha- bhANDa- cIvara-.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 233

The affix (N)i(G) is like Nic, but the G triggers anudAttaGi. The N triggers NeraniTi.

Adding (N)i(G) after puccha- "tail", bhANDa- "pot", cIvara- "rag" , we get three roots with special meanings, pucchi bhANDi !cIvari. Examples --

utpucchayate "lifts its tail"

paripucchayate "wags its tail"

samMbhANDayate "collects pots in a heap"

saJMcIvarayate "collects rags; wears rags"

KAZIKA karaNe iti vartate. puccha bhANDa cIvara ity etebhyo NiG pratyayo bhavati karaNa-vizeSe. pucchAd udasane paryasane vA. utpucchayate. paripucchayate. bhANDAt samAcayane. saMbhANDayate. cIvarAd arjane paridhAne vA. saMcIvarayate bhikSuH. GakAra AtmanepadArthaH. NakAraH sAmAnya-grahaN%ArthaH, NeraniTi iti.

The G label of (N)i(G) does not trigger kGitica.

The rule gets the trickle "to mean making", which must be ignored, as in fact bhANDayate cannot mean "he makes pots". Three vArttikas tell us that NiG is only allowed in the abovementioned senses.

If you are curious about why would anyone collect pots in a heap, see Wikipedia on Monte Testaccio.

545 letters. -- 31.bse 823 -- popularity 4

242 !kam gets /NiG

243 The three previous rules are optional before @soft.

244 [/sanAdi]-enders are [@root]s.

1690 /Ni




(muNDamizra) (!muN)

muNDa;mizra;zlakSNa; lavaNa;vrata;vastra; hala;kala;kRta; tUstebhyo Nic ONPANINI 31021
Nic after muNDa mizra zlakSNa, lavaNa vrata vastra, hala kala kRta, tUsta (to mean making).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 234

Nic is usually added after a root, but this rule allows to add it after certain nouns such as lavaNam "salt", to form roots with special meanings --

lavaNam + Nic + laT tip → * lavaNami + tip supodhA lavaNa + i + tip kartarizap lavaNa + i + zap + tip hardsoft lavaNa + e + a + tip ecoya lavaNa + ayatilavaNayati "he salts"

This rule gives the seal of approval to the following verbs --

muNDayati "shaves"

mizrayati "mixes"

zlakSNayati "softens"

lavaNayati "salts"

vratayati "performs a vow"

This verb can be used only with vows of taking food or abstaining from it, like payo vratayati "he's living on milk only" or vRSalAnnaM vratayati "he's abstaining from food prepared by low-classers".

saMvastrayati "wears"

halayati "takes the plow"

kRtayati "is grateful"

vitUSTayati "disentangles hair; delivers from sin"

KAZIKA muNDa mizra zlakSNa lavaNa vrata vastra hala kala kRta tUsta ity etebhyaH karaNe Nic pratyayo bhavati. muNDaM karoti muNDayati. mizrayati. zlakSNayati. lavaNayati. vratAt bhojane tannivRttau ca payo vratayati. vRSalAnnaM vratayati. vastrAt samAcchAdane saMvastrayati. haliM gRhNAti halayati. kaliM gRhNAti kalayati. halikalyoradantatvanipAtanaM sanvadbhAvapratiSedhAryam. ajahalat. acakalat. kRtaM gRhNAti kRtayati. tUstAni vihanti vitUstayati kezAn. vizadIkaroti ityarthaH.

The rule allows the verb kalayati, but I didn't list it above because I don't know what it means. The /kAzika says that it means kaliGM gRhNAti, about whose meaning i'm dubious.

734 letters. -- 31.bse 841 -- popularity 1

1690 /Ni




(dhAtorekA) (@int)

dhAtor ekAco halAdeH kriyA;samabhihAre yaG ONPANINI 31022
One-vowel roots that start with a consonant may get yaG to mean repetition or intensity.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 235

The sanAdi affix ya(G) expresses that the action is repeated, strong, or complete.

It can be added to one-vowel roots that start with a consonant and do not carry a preverb, such as pac or jval. So from roots pac and jval we can form --

pacati "he cooks"

jvalati tArA "the star shines"

But when we add yaG to these roots, we get the sanAdyanta roots pApacya and jAjvalya, that mean intense or repeated action --

pApacyate "he cooks often; he cooks completely"

jAjvalyate tArA "the star shines brightly; the star twinkles"

Instead of adding yaG, we may express the same ideas by other means --

jvalati tarA bhRzam "the star shines brightly"

jvalati tarA muhurmuhuH "the star twinkles"

If the root has more than one vowel, stars with a vowel, or carries a preverb, then yaG is not possible and we must use the other means, as in --

tAm upagacchati punaH punaH "he approaches her again and again"

The yaG roots pApacya(G), bobhUya(G) are formed this way --

pac "cook" + yaG sanyaGoH papacya dIrghokitaH pApacya "cook repeatedly or intensely"

bhU + yaG sanyaGoH bhUbhUya abhyAsecarca bUbhUya guNoyaGlukoH bobhUya "repeatedly or intensely be"

The G label in ya(G) makes these roots bendy (by anudAttaGi) --

pApacya + laT tapApacya + zap + te'''pApacyate "he keeps cooking and cooking"

bobhUyate pizAcI sA zapAt phyonA nizAgame "because of a curse, that Fiona keeps turning into an ogress at nightfall"

See also the exceptions --

lup sad car jap jabh dah daz gRR take yaG when despising the manner. .

yaG after verbs of going only means "crookedly" .

KAZIKA ekAj yo dhAtur hal-AdiH kriyA-samabhihAre vartate tasmAd yaG pratyayo bhavati. paunaHpunyaM bhRz%Artho vA kriyA-samabhihAraH. naH punaH pacati pApacyate. yAyajyate. bhRzaM jvalati jAjvalyate. dedIpyate. dhAtoH iti kim? sopasargAd utpattir mA bhUt, bhRzaM prATati. ekAcaH iti kim? bhRzaM jAgarti. halAdeH iti kim? bhRzam IkSate. sUcisUtramUtryaTyartyazUrNotInAM grahanaM yaG-vidhAnavekAjahal-Ady-artham. sosUcyate. sosUtryate. momUtryate. aTATyate. arAryate. azAzyate. prorNonUyate. bhRzaM zobhate, bhRzaM rocate ityatra neSyate, anabhidhAnAt.

The yaG is rarely used. It is found mostly in the veda. In the epics, a few yaG verbs do appear, but once in a blue moon. There is also a thing called yaGluk, that is even less common.

1288 letters. -- 31A.bse 1 -- popularity 26




(nityaGkauTi) (!nityaGkW)

nityaM kauTilye gatau ONPANINI 31023
yaG after verbs of going only means "crookedly".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 236

The roots that mean moving, such as kram car gam plu, take yaG only to mean tortuous motion --

caGMkramyate "he walks crookedly or tortuously"

After these roots, we can't use yaG in the usual sense of repetition or intensity, so we say instead --

bhRzaGM krAmati "he walks a lot"

KAZIKA gativacanAd dhatoH kauTilye gamyamAne nityaM yaG pratyayo bhavati. kuTilaM krAmati caGkramyate. dandramyate. nityagrahaNaM viSayaniyamArthaM, gativacanAn nityam kauTilya eva bhavati, na tu kriyAsamabhihAre. bhRzaM krAmati.

215 letters. -- 31A.bse 120 -- popularity 1




(lupasada) (!lup)

lupa;sada; cara;japa; jabha;daha; daza;gRRbhyo bhAva-garhAyAm ONPANINI 31024
lup sad car jap jabh dah daz gRR take yaG when despising the manner.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 237

According to rule yaG, the affix yaG means thatthe action is done intensely or repeteadly. But after these eight roots, it can only mean that the action is done sloppily. Examples --

sazimiM lolupyate "he's cutting the sashimi badly"

mantraJ jaJjapyate brAhmaNaH "The brahmin is botching up his veda recitation"

To mean "cuts again and again" or "recites again and again", we cannot use yaG, we must use some other means --

bhRzaM sazimiM lumpati "he's cutting sashimi very intently"

mantraJM japati japati brAhmaNaH "the brahmin keeps reciting and reciting the veda"

Notice that the rule says "when despising THE MANNER". If we don't despise the way the action is done, but the fact that it is done at all, we cannot use yaG, and must express our censure some other way. For instance, we can use dhik --

kaSTanM dhiG mantraJM japati vRSalaH "wtf, a zUdra is reciting the veda!"

which expresses censure no matter if the zUdra is reciting well or badly.

KAZIKA lupa sada cara japa jabha daha daza gRR ityetebhyo bhAvagarhAyAM dhAtvarthagarhAyAM yaG pratyayo bhavati. garhitaM lumpati lolupyate. evaM sAsadyate. paJcauuryate. jaJjapyate. jaJjabhyate. dandahyate. dandazyate. nijegilyate. bhAvagarhAyAm iti kim? sAdhu japati. bhAvagrahaNam kim? sAdhanagarhAyAM mA bhUt, mantraM japati vRSalaH. nityagrahaNaM viSayaniyamArtham anuvartate. etebhyo nityaM bhAvagarhAyAm eva bhavati, na tu kriyAsamabhihAre. bhRzaM lumpati.

749 letters. -- 31A.bse 135 -- popularity 1




(satyApapA) (@ni)

satyApa;pAza; rUpa;vINA; tUla;zloka; senA;loma; tvaca;varma; varNa;cUrNa; cur'-Adibhyo Nic ONPANINI 31025
satyApa and sundry, and the nichclass, get Nic.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 238

This rule has two parts:

(1) the twelve nouns mentioned in this rule, with Nic added, make roots with special meanings. Even though Nic, being a kRt affix, cannot be ordinarily added to nouns.

vi + pAza- "a snare" + Nic + laT tip → .. → vipAzayati "unsnares, sets it loose from the trap"

varNa- "color" + Nic + laT tip → .. → varNayati "paints, depicts, describes"

(2) the nichclass roots always get Nic affix, with no change of meaning (see verb classes ).

cur + laT tipcur "steal" + Nic + tip puganta cor + i + tip sanAdyantAdhAtavaH cori ( root) + tip kartarizap cori + zap + tip hardsoft core + zap + tip ecoya corayati "steals"

Unlike thew other affixes mentioned in verb classes , this Nic affix is added to the rot ALWAYS, not just before hard doer affixes. After beng added, it may be deleted by other rules, such as for instance NeraniTi here --

cur + karmaNi laT ta → * cur + Nic + ta puganta cor + Nic + tacor + Nic + yak + ta NeraniTi cor + yak + tacoryate "it is being stolen"

There are two sorts of Nic affix --

The Nichclass Nic added by this rule, which has no meaning

and the causative Nic added by hetumatica, which means "make others do".

inria tries to flag the Nichclass Nic verbs with "[10]", and the causative Nic verbs with " ca". But as the only way of knowing if the Nic was added because it means causing, or because the root is a nichclass, is from the meaning of the verb in context, inria will sometimes fail and tell you that a [10] is a ca or that a ca is a [10]. So, be careful and don't let the machine do your thinking for you.

KAZIKA saty'-Adibhyaz cUrNa-paryantebhyaH, curAdibhyaz ca Nic pratyayo bhavati. satyam AcaSte satyApayati. arthavedasatyAnAm Apug vaktavyaH. artham AcaSte arthApayati. devApayati. ApugvacanasAmarthyATTilopo na bhavati. pAzAd vimocane vipAzayati. rUpAd darzane rUpayati. vINayopagAyati upavINayati. tUlenAnukuSNAti anutUlayati. zlokairupastauti upazlokayati. senayAbhiyAti abhiSeNayati. lomAnyanumArSTi anulomayati. tvacaM gRhNAti tvacayati. akArAntas tvacazabdaH. varmaNA sannahyati saMvarmayati. varNam gRhNAti varNayati. cUrNaiH avadhvaMsayati avacUrNayati. curAdibhyaH svArthe. corayati. cintayati. svAbhAvikatvAdarthAbhidhAnasya yathAsvaM pratyayArthA nirdizyante.

1078 letters. -- 31A.bse 209 -- popularity 13




(hetumati) (@ca)

hetumati ca ONPANINI 31026
Add (N)i(c) to mean causing.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 239

"Causing" means getting others to do something, no matter if it's by indirectly hinting, politely asking, commanding, threatening, or at gunpoint.

Example. In this sentence, the verb Anayat "he brought" is not causal --

Anayad odananM dAsaH "the servant brought rice"

But in this sentence, the verb AnAyayam "I made (him) bring" is causal --

AnAyayam odananM dAsena "I made the servant bring rice"

(If context requires it, instead of "I made" or "I caused", you should translate with "I requested", "I told", "I got", "I asked", "I commanded", etc etc.)

This rule teaches that to turn a root that means "bring" into a verb that means "get others to bring", we add Nic after the root. For instance --

AG + nI + laT mipA + nI + zap + mip hardsoft Ane + a + mi → .. → AnayAmi "I bring"

AG + nI + Nic + laT mipA + nI + Nic + zap + mip acoJNiti A + nai + i + a + mip → .. → AnAyayAmi "I make others bring"

This sort of Nic is called causative Nic.

Back to there are two sorts of Nic .

KAZIKA hetuH svatantraya kartuH prayojakaH, tadIyo vyApAraH preSanAdilakSaNo hetumAn, tasminn abhidheye dhAtoH Nic pratyayo bhavati. kaTaM kArayati. odanaM pAcayati. tat karoti ityupasaGkhyAnaM sUtrayati ityAdyartham. sUtraM karoti sUtrayati. AkhyAnAt kRtas tadAcaSTa iti Nic kRlluk prakRtipratyApattiH prakRtivac ca kArakam. AkhyAnAt kRdanttaN Nic vaktavyaH tadAcaSTe ityetasminn arthe, kRlluk, prakRtipratyApattiH, prakRtivac ca kArakaM bhavati. kaMsa-vadham AcaSTe kaMsaM ghAtayati. balibandham AcaSTe baliM bandhayati. rAjAgamanam AcaSTe rAjAnam Agamayati. AGlopazca kAlAtyantasaMyoge maryAdAyAm. ArAtri vivAsam AcaSTe rAtriM vivAsayati. citrIkaraNe prApi. ujjayinyAH prasthito mAhiSmatyAM sUryodgamanaM sambhAvayate sUryam udgamayati. nakSatrayoge jJi. puSyayogaM jAnAti puSyeNa yojayati. maghabhir yojayati.

You may add this Nic freely to any root of the verb classes one to nine. Adding it to nichclass roots is gramatically allowed, but it is a very bad idea, because the verb ends up looking as if you had added nothing. So no one does that.

Adding Nic to sanAdyanta roots is forbidden. For instance, the kyaG root puruSAya "behave like a man" cannot get Nic, so if you want to express the idea "I made him behave like a man", you'll have to say that in some other way. For instance --

puruSAyasvety abruvam apuruSAyac ca

I told him "behave like a man!", and he did.

1110 letters. -- 31A.bse 254 -- popularity 13




(kaNDvAdibhyo) (/yak')

kaNDv;Adibhyo yak ONPANINI 31027
kaNDU etc get yak'.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 240

The kaNDU-class nounbases, such as kaNDU(J) "itch, scratch", can be used as roots, and then get ya(k)' --

kaNDU + yak'kaNDUya "scratch"

kaNDUya + laT ta → .. → kaNDUyate "he scratches himself"

kandU(J) is bendy because it is Jit (see svaritaJi).

There is a list of the kaNDvAdi here, and another one in the kAzikA.

KAZIKA kaNDUJityevam Adibhyo yak pratyayo bhavati. dvivadhAH kaNDvAdayo, dhAtavaH prAtipAdikAni ca. tatra dhAtvadhikArAd dhatubhyaH eva pratyayo vidhIyate, na tu prAtipadikebhyaH. tathA ca guNapratiSedhArthaH kakAro 'nubadhyate. dhAtuprakaraNAd dhAtuH kasya cAsaJjanAdapi. Aha ca ayam imaM dIrghaM manye dhatur vibhASitaH. kaNDUJ kaNDUyati, kaNDUyate. JitvAt svarita-JitaH kartr-abhiprAye kriyAphale ity Atmanepadam. kaNDUJ. mantu. hRNIG. valgu. asmanas. mahIG. leT. loT. iras. iraj. iraJ. dravas. medhA. kuSubha. magadha. tantas. pampas. sukha. duHkha. sapara. arara. bhiSaj. bhiSNaj. iSudha. caraNa. curaNa. bhuraNa. turaNa. gadgada. elA. kelA. khelA. liT. loT.

271 letters. -- 31A.bse 578 -- popularity 2

244 [/sanAdi]-enders are [@root]s.




(gupUdhUpa) (/Ay)

gupU;dhUpa; vicchi;paNi; panibhya:: AyaH ONPANINI 31028
gup dhUp vicch paN pan get Aya (with no change of meaning).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 241

Examples --

gup + laT tip → * gup + Aya + ti hardsoft gopAya + tigopAya + zap + tipgopAyati "protects"

dhUpAyati "heats"

vicchAyati "approaches"

paNAyati "praises"

panAyati "praises"

This Aya is optional because AyAdaya below says so. If we don't apply this rule, then we get gopayati dhUpayati vicchayati, with just Nic, and paNate panate, with zap.

This rule won't work on the paN root that means "makes a contract" --

zatasya paNate "hires for a hundred"

KAZIKA gupU rakSaNe, dhUpa santApe, viccha gatau, paNa vyavahAre stutau ca, pana ca ityetebhyo dhAtubhyaH Ayapratyayo bhavati. gopAyati. dhUpayati. vicchAyati. paNAyati. panAyati. stuty;arthena paninA sAhacaryAt tad-arthaH paNiH pratyayam utpAdayati na vyavahArArthaH. zatasya paNate. sahasrasya paNate. anubandhazca kevale caritArthaH, tena AyapratyayAntAnnAtmanepadaM bhavati.

339 letters. -- 31A.bse 606 -- popularity 1

244 [/sanAdi]-enders are [@root]s.




(kamerNiG) (!kam)

kamer NiG ONPANINI 31030
kam gets NiGmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 242

The root kam(i) gets (N)i(G) without change of meaning.

kam + laT ta → * kam + NiG + laT ta ata_upa kAm + NiG + takAmi + zap + ta hardsoft kAme + zap + ta ecoya kAmay + a + takAmaya + te'''kAmayate "is in love with; longs for"

KAZIKA kamer dhAtoH NiG pratyayo bhavati. Na-kAro vRddhy-arthaH. Ga-kAra Atmanepad%ArthaH. kAmayate, kAmayete, kAmayante.

The N label of (N)i(G) triggers ata_upa, the G label triggers anudAttaGi.

187 letters. -- 31A.bse 640 -- popularity 2

243 The three previous rules are optional before @soft.

1690 /Ni




(AyAdaya) (!AyA)

AyAdaya:: ArdhadhAtuke vA ONPANINI 31031
The three previous rules are optional before soft.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 243

Example. Rule kamerNiG just said that NiG is compulsory after kam. Yet it is only compulsory whenkam is before hard. Before a soft, like kta, it's optional --

kam + ktakAm + NiG + kta → .. → kAmayita- "longed for"

kam + kta → .. → kamita- "longed for"

KAZIKA ArdhadhAtuka-viSaye ArdhadhAtuka-vivakSAyAm Ay'-AdayaH pratyayA$ vA bhavanti. goptA, gopAyitA. artitA, RtIyitA. kamitA, kAmayitA.

177 letters. -- 31A.bse 665 -- popularity 2

241 {gup dhUp vicch paN pan} get /Aya (with no change of meaning).

256 /cli to /caG after [/Ni]-enders, !zri !dru !sru !kam before /kartari.




(sanAdyantA) (/sanA)

san-Ady-antA$ dhAtavaH ONPANINI 31032
sanAdi-enders are roots.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 244

The sanAdi affixes, a.k.a. san-class affixes, a.k.a. rootmaker affixes, are the ones that we just explained in previous rules, since 31005 guptijkidbhyassan. Namely --

san kyac kAmyac

vayac kyaG kyaS

NiG Nic yaG

yak' Aya IyaG

Some of these can be added to roots, and some can be added to nouns, and some to both. The result is a new root, that we call a sanAdyanta root, or a sanAdi-ender.

Example with a root --

pac is a root, and means "cook".

Joining pac and Nic we get pAci.

This pAci is a root (because this rule says so) and means "make others cook", because rule hetumatica says so.

Being a root, it can get a tense or a kRt added. Example with the laG tense --

pAci + laG tippAci + zap + tip → .. → apAcayat "he made others cook"

As in --

apAcayan mRgaM rAjA "the king made his servants cook the deer"

Not same as --

apacan mRgaM rAjA "the king cooked the deer himself"

Example with a noun --

putrAn is a noun, and means "sons".

Joining putrAn and kyac we get putrIya.

putrIya is a root (by this rule) and means "want to have sons" (by supa_ AtmanaH kyac).

Adding laT tip after putrIya --

putrIyati rAjJI "the queen wants to have sons"

These roots can be used in all the ways a normal root can be used, except that they cannot get another sanAdi affix. (For an exception to the exception, see about Nic plus san .)

Back to types of affixes .

KAZIKA sanAdir yeSAM te sanAdayaH. sanAdayo 'nte yeSaM te sanAdyantAH. sanAdyantAH samudAyAH dhAtusaMjJAH bhavanti. pratyaya-grahaNa-paribhASA eva pada-saMjJAyAm anta-vacanena liGgena pratiSiddhA satI punar iha anta-vacanena pratiprasUyate. cikIrSati. putrIyati. putrakAmyati.

Some notes --

(1) The affix cvi is not in this list, because it does not make new roots, but it has a similar effect. It turns nouns into verbs. For instance adding cvi after maNDUka- "frog" and zukla- "white" we get --

rAjAnamM maNDUkIkaroti "he turns the king into a frog"

vastrANi zuklIbhavanti "the clothes whiten"

(2) The roots made by these affixes from roots, such as pAci, are called derivative roots. Those made from nouns, such as putrIya, are said to be denominative roots.

(4) They are all seT.

(5) The Ni roots are very common. If they were made by rule hetumatica they are called causative roots ( ca in inria), if made by satyApa they are called class ten roots or nichclass roots ([10] in inria).

(5) The other ten affixes have been seldom used recently (by "recently", I mean since the battle of Hastings). If you find pipakSati (which has san) in the mbh, chances are that nIlakaNTha commented "pipakSati means paktum icchati".

1717 letters. -- 31B.bse 1 -- popularity 23
















24072 some vikaraNa ←

chunk 16: 31005 sanAdyanta roots

→ 31003 syA tAs cli