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chunk 71: footnotes 3

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about vibhakti affixes
how to find out the class of a verb
about yad-
verb classes
sup-ender is noun.
tiG-ender is verb.
unchanging has neither sup nor tiG.
non-third person liT is VERY uncommon
replacing a thing with itself looks pointless
Am'' summary
Which roots get Am''
replacing with guNa
soft liG is quite useless
About the uNAdi affixes.
auxiliary roots
About accents.
rules that delete root nasal
the auxiliary as is not replaced with bhU
Metri causa means "to make the verse fit".
epics have oddities.
about hidden words
Accent rules are only applied when reciting the veda.
Extralong is a vowel longer than a long.
Natvam works across some word boundaries.
No Natvam before serious.
about kta
about ktavatu
About jJApaka
formation of lRG
Spelling of o before deleted a.
kaNDvAdi list
About hangers.
types of affixes
about iSThan
rules that delete the calling
MCM, sandhi of as As s
words that end in r or s
sandhi of true r
about meaning the doer or not meaning the doer
Accurate translation of nazchavya.
replace with guNa
about the aJ affix
vasu with sup.
about the ages of the world
the six duties of a brahmin
about the final s
Rule sthAnivad Adezo does not work for letter-rules.
Cluster lengthening after short.
Uses of the second endings.
warning about flat bent rules
root changes before yak and soft liG
Optionality of vAzari.

(/vibhakti) (/vib)

about vibhakti affixesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1368

There are two groups of vibhakti affixes --

The prAgdizIya affixes are vibhakti affixes, by rule prAgdizovibhaktiH

The sup and tiG affixes are vibhakti too, by rule vibhaktizca.

Several rules work on vibhakti affixes, such as aSTana::A, tyadAdInAmaH, navibhaktautusmAH.

220 letters. -- 27300footnotes3.bse 4 -- popularity 12

(howtofindouttheclassof) (howf)

how to find out the class of a verbmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1369

To find out the class of a root, look the root up in a dictionary.

For instance, when you type ji into the auroville dictionary, it should tell you that it is a "cl 1" (class one verb, meaning a zapclass), that the present is yajati or jayate, and that it means to win or conquer or defeat.

Do NOT type ji into inria reader! That one does not understand roots. But you can use the "Stemmer" link at the bottom of the reader page to get to a place where you can type ji.

To find out the class number of a verb, type it into inria reader.

If you typed a laT, laG, loT, hard liG that means the doer (for instance jayati), the hovertext of the verb will show " [1] " meaning that this jayati form has zap inside, therefore its root ji is a zapclass root.

If you type some other tense, for instance jeSyati, it will not show the " [1] ", but it will tell you that the root is ji, and you can click the ji to find the class.

You may also type the verb into auroville.

And, if you can read devanAgarI, you may also type the verb into hyderabad's morphological analyzer tool.





826 letters. -- 27300footnotes3.bse 21 -- popularity 1

1371 verb classes

(/yad-) (/yad)

about yad-mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1370

The pronoun yad- means "the one that, the one which, the one who, who, he who". As in --

yas tarati nadIm "the one that crosses river..."

When yad- agrees with azva-, translate both words as "the horse that, the horse which, the horse who" --

azvo yas tarati nadIm "the horse that crosses river..."

When the horse is given second ending by the verb, the yad- gets second too --

azvaM yam apazyam "the horse that I saw..."

even where there is no horse word in the sentence --

yam apazyam "the one I saw..."

in that example yad- got to be masculine because the speaker is thinking of a horse. If the speaker is thinking of a mare the yad- gets feminine gender --

yAm apazyam "the one I saw..."

and same thing if the mare is mentioned --

yAm azvAm apazyam "the mare I saw..."

When the yad- has other endings, we have to be careful to translate the ending in front of the "which", never in front of "the one". As in --

azvena yena "the horse with which"

azvAya yasmai "the horse at which"

azvAd yasmAt "the horse from which"

azvasya yasya "the horse whose"

azve yasmin "the horse on which"

For English speakers, the yad- pronouns are hard to get used to. The important thing about learning them is that you should never try to translate them until after you are comfortable with the several forms of the tad- idam- kim- pronouns. To help with that, I made this drilling gadget --

masculine singular pronouns drill

Hope it works.

1037 letters. -- 27300footnotes3.bse 130 -- popularity 4

34 The [@pronoun]s are /sarva- etc.

485 (The /prAgdizIya) come after /kim-, @pronoun, /bahu-, but not after the [/dvi-]class.

812 /tyadAdi to !a (before /vibhakti).

1095 Pronoun tables.

(@verbclass) (@verbc)

verb classesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1371 vikaraNa

The roots listed in the dhAtupATha are divided into ten goups called verb classes. These are the numbers of the ten verb classes, the affix that their roots get, the name of the class, and the rule that adds the affix --

[1] zap zapclass kartarizap

[2] luk lukclass adiprabhRtibhyazzapaH

[3] zlu zluclass juhotyAdibhyazzluH

[4] zyan zyanclass divAdibhyazzyan

[5] znu znuclass svAdibhyazznuH

[6] za zaclass tudAdibhyazza

[7] znam znamclass rudhAdibhyazznam

[8] u uclass tanAdikR

[9] znA znaclass kryAdibhyazznA

[10] Nic nichclass satyApa

These ten affixes are called vikaraNa affixes by grammarians other than pANini.

Rules one to nine above only work when the root is right before a hard doer affix. Rule ten, however, ALWAYS adds Nic, no matter what is afterwards. If what is afterwards is a hard doer affix, the Nic becomes aya because of kartarizap and ecoya.

The lukclass roots do not get luk affix; I use the word luk in the list to mean that they get no affix at all.

When you type dveSTi, zRNoti, pacanti etc into inria reader, it will show [2] [5] [1] etc to mean that dveSTi [2] has no affix, zRNoti [5] has znu, pacanti [1] has zap. And pacyante gets no number because it has yak, which is none of the above.

See also how to find out the class of a verb .





985 letters. -- 27300footnotes3.bse 413 -- popularity 21

(@noun) (@noun)

sup-ender is noun.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1372

When I say " noun", I mean sub-anta "whatever ends in a sup".

Some examples of nouns, with the sup they have. What is before the sup is either a nounbase, or a nounbase with a feminine affix added at the end.

azva- + suazvas "horse"

azvA- + su halGyA azvA "mare"

vidyut- + su halGyA vidyut "lightning"

zveta- + suzvetas "white"

dRSTa- + au vRddhireci dRSTau "both were seen"

kRtavatI- + su halGyA kRtavatI "she made"

kramamAna- + TA TAGasi kramamAna- + ina Natvam kramamANena "with (someone) that walks"

Notice that you cannot trust the translation of a sentence to know if something is a noun or not. In azvazH zvetaH plutavAn "the white horse jumped", all three words are nouns, even though the translations of two of them would not be called "nouns" in english grammar. A better test for nounhood is dropping your word into inria reader. If inria paints it blue it is a noun. If yellow and blue or yellow and cyan it is a compound noun. If inria shows both blue and red you are out of luck, sorry.

719 letters. -- 27300footnotes3.bse 472 -- popularity 43

(@verb) (@verb)

tiG-ender is verb.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1373

Whatever has a tiG at the end is a verb (in Sanskrit: tiGanta). Examples --

pac + laTpac + tippaca + tippacati "he cooks"

pac + laGpac + tippaca + tip luGlaG apaca + tipapaca + t'''apacat "he cooked"

as + laGas + tipas + t''' AD-aj-AdInAm As + t astisico As + ItAsIt "he was"

cint + liTcint + tascint + atuscint + Am'' + atus → .. → cintayAmAsatus "the two of them thought"

Please remember that whatever "feels" verbish because it translates into an English verb won't be a verb if it does not have a tiG at the end. So there is not a single verb here --

plavamAnA nadIGM gatvA bhekA dRSTAs tadA mayA "then I went to the river and saw jumping frogs"

even though three of the words have a verb root inside and mean an action.

To test a word for verbhood, drop it into inria. Inria will paint it red and tell you which tiG it has. Well, unless it's an Am'' verb like cintayAmAsatuH, then inria paints the cintayAm orange and the Asatus red.





696 letters. -- 27300footnotes3.bse 543 -- popularity 42

(@unchanging) (@un)

unchanging has neither sup nor tiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1374

An old jingle goes, vacaneSu ca sarveSu yan na vyeti tad avyayam. Whatever word does not change is an unchanging.

Sanskrit words can be divided in three groups, that inria paints blue, red and pink --

blue -- nouns OR subanta ( sup-enders)

red -- verbs OR tiGanta ( tiG-enders)

pink -- unchanging OR avyaya

blue are nouns, made by adding a sup ( noun ending) after a nounbase. We may add different sup to the same nounbase.

gaja + sugajas "elephant"

gaja + zasgajAn

red are verbs, made by adding a tiG ( verb ending) after a root. We may add different tiG to the same root.

car + laT tipcarati "moves"

car + laG mipcarAmi "I move"

Everything else is pink -- unchanging.

Pinks either don't get a sup tiG at all, or always get the same sup. So they always look the same.

ca "and"

plutvA "jumped and"

plotum "to jump"

atra "here"





636 letters. -- 27300footnotes3.bse 654 -- popularity 21

(nonthirdpersonliTisver) (non)

non- third person liT is VERY uncommonmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1375

The liT tense has been seldom used since the epics. And even in the epics, only the third person endings are found -- Nal atus us ez AtAm irec.

As all those start with vowels, they never get iT. Which means you don't need to pay much attention to the rules, such as kR;sR;bhR;vR;stu;dru;sru;zru and others, that add iT to the valAdi liT (namely thal va ma se''' dhve''' vahe''' mahe'''),

If we take seriously the parokSe limitation of the rule parokSeliT, it would follow that the second person liT may be used only when you tell someone about what you heard they did, but didn't see them doing --

rAkSasaJM jaghanitha "I heard you killed the demon"

And similarly, you can use the first person liT only when you talk about something that you don't remember having done or claim to not have done --

tanM na jaghana "I didn't kill him, that's just a rumor"

Frankly -- If you are going to use a first or second person liT, do not worry about the parokSe. Such limitations to the use of tenses have been mostly ignored for centuries.

802 letters. -- 27300footnotes3.bse 825 -- popularity 1

(replacingathingwithits) (replacit)

replacing a thing with itself looks pointlessmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1376

Rule atom says "replace su with am and am with am". At first sight, replacing one thing with itself looksstupid, but lets look at the previous rule too. Rule

svamorna says "after neuter, replace su with luk and am with luk"

and the next rule is an exception to it,

atom , and it says "but if the neuter ends in a, replace su with am and am with am".

Therefore, when su follows a neuter, we replace it with luk, UNLESS the neuter ends in a, then we replace su with am.

And, when am follows a neuter, we replace it with luk, UNLESS the neuter ends in a, then we replace am with am instead. In other words, we don't do any replacing.

In English, we might have worded the second rule as --

"but if the neuter ends in a, replace su with am and do not replace am at all".

However, in rule jargon, it turns out that saying ' replace su with am and do not replace am ' is a waste of words, because saying "replace su and am with am" is much shorter, and the students do not have to spend so much time chanting the rules.

768 letters. -- 27300footnotes3.bse 843 -- popularity 3

1002 Replace /sam with !m before !rAj plus /kvip.

1011 Before /ku /pu, (/H to either /H or) /K /F.

(Amsummary) (A)

Am'' summarymmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1377 Am''

These are the rules that turn cur + liT into corayAmAsa --

Rules kAs;pratyayAdAmamantreliTi ff

explain which roots get Am'' instead of liTidhA.

Rule AmaH

deletes the liT affix.

Rule kRJcAnuprayujyateliTi

adds that affix to an auxiliary then glues them after the Am''.

And rule Ampratyaya clarifies that two of the auxiliaries never get bent affixes.

286 letters. -- 27400footnotes4.bse 1 -- popularity 3

(whichrootsgetAm) (whi)

Which roots get Am''mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1378

Rules kAspra ff explain exactly which roots get Am'' before liT. But summarizing those rules here can do no harm.

The rule-of thumb is that roots with one vowel get liTidhA, like kSip kR here --

kSip + Nal → .. → cikSepa "threw"

kR + Nal → .. → cakAra "made, did"

and the rest get Am'', like pAci, cinti, bubodhiSa --

pac + causative Nic + liTpAci + liT → .. → pAcayAmAsa "made others cook"

cint + Nichclass Nic + liT tip satyApa cinti + tip → .. → cintayAmAsa "thought"

budh + san + liTbubodhiSa + liT → .. → bubodhiSAmAsa "wanted to know"

(In those examples, the Asa is added after Am'' by rule kRJcA).

Now the exceptions to the general rule.

(1) UrNu has two vowels, but gets no Am'' --

UrNunAva "he covered"

UrNunuvus "they covered"

(2) day ay kAs As have one vowel, but get Am'' (see dayAyA for examples)

(3) So do the one-vowelers that start with a heavy vowel that is not A a (see ijAdezca for examples).

(4) And these roots make their liT both ways --

bhI hrI bhR hu (see bhIhrI)

uS vid jAgR daridrA (see uSavida)





743 letters. -- 27400footnotes4.bse 599 -- popularity 4

(replacingwithguNa) (replacih)

replacing with guNammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1379

Replacing with guNa works like this:

change i I into e

change u U into o

change R RR into ar

change L into al

Replacing with vRddhi works like this:

change a into A

change i I e ai into ai

change u U o au into au

change R RR into Ar

change L into Al





208 letters. -- 27400footnotes4.bse 666 -- popularity none

(softliGisquiteuseless) (softliGel)

soft liG is quite uselessmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1380

There are many rules in the grammar dealing with the soft liG, starting at liGAziSi, and they are quite complicated.

Do not panic about that. You don't need to know much about those rules, as the soft liG, nowadays, is used once in a blue moon when it is flat, and never when it is bent. It was apparently used in vedic times, and in pANini 's times.

The soft liG may be used only to express wishes. But when you need to express wishes, you should really use the hard liG or the loT instead.

dIrghAyur bhava "may you live long"

410 letters. -- 27400footnotes4.bse 696 -- popularity 2

390 (@Bent) /liG gets /sIyuT.

(/uNAdi) (/uN)

About the uNAdi affixes.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1381

Short explanation: the uNAdi affixes are affixes that are not mentioned in the pANini rules. Most of them have been invented by other grammarians. You do not need to learn them.

Now the long explanation.

Many Sanskrit nounbases are formed by adding kRt affixes after roots. For instance, nAyakas means leader, and matayas means "opinions, what someone thinks". These meanings are "explained" by saying that nAyakas somehow "comes from" the root nI "lead" with the affix Nvul added (and su, of course), then matayas comes from man "think" with ktin (and jas).

Most of the affixes mentioned in the rules are quite useful, in the sense that what they can help to explain the meanings of many words. For instance, rule NvultRcau tells us that all roots can get Nvul, from which we deduce that we may say AnAyakas, pAcakas, zocakas for "bringer", "cooker", "mourner" and so on and so on. darvi

Others are less useful, like ktin, that is added only to some roots, or snaJ, that is added to pums only.

The uNAdi affixes are affixes invented by other grammarians before and after pANini. They are collected in works called uNAdi-sUtras, and most of them can be added only to a few roots. An example of that would be jAgRvi-, meaning "watchful" or "awake". As this nounbase appears to have something to do with the root jAgR "wake up", but cannot be explained by any of the affixes mentioned in the pAnini grammar, some grammarinas added a vi affix to the uNAdi affix lists, just to tell other grammarians that "jagRvi- is a good word even though pAnini does not say so.

As you can use a dictionary to check that jAgRvi- is okay, you don't need to know anything about the uNAdi affixes. Maybe the guys that make the dictionaries do.

1350 letters. -- 27400footnotes4.bse 791 -- popularity 1

538 One-letter {vi}-affixes lose !v.

(@auxiliary) (@aux)

auxiliary rootsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1382

The auxiliary roots are kR, bhU and as.

Sometimes they are used to make auxiliary verbs such as cakAra, babhUva, bhavati, Asa, karoti and so on.

These verbs are called auxiliary verbs when they are used as if they were affixes. This only happens after Am'' and cvi.

Example after cintayAm (am Am''-ender) --

cakAra when used alone means "he did" or "he make", and is not an auxiliary verb. It is made from kR + liT.

cintayAJMcakAra means "he thought". The cakAra inside it is an auxiliary verb.

Example after mRdU (a cvi-ender) --

bhavati alone means "is", and is not an auxiliary.

mRdUbhavati means "becomes soft, softens". The bhavati inside it is an auxiliary.

karoti alone means "makes", and is not an auxiliary.

mRdUkaroti means "makes it soft, softens". The karoti inside it is an auxiliary.

The forms made from as + liT, such as Asa, Asatus, Asus, can only be used as auxiliaries, inside Am'' verbs such as cintayAmAsa. When used alone to mean "he was, they was", the liT of as is babhUva (by rule asterbhUH).

773 letters. -- 27400footnotes4.bse 841 -- popularity 10

(@accent) (@acc)

About accents.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1383


... this one is no good. lame ...

According to pANini, in Sanskrit, no matter if it is laukika or vedic, one vowel has a pitch higher than the others. About half of the rules of the grammar have no purpose other than teaching which vowel gets that high pitch.

So, in kosher Sanskrit, these two are different words pronounced differently --

yudh + zyan + te''' = yúdhyate "he fights", with high pitched u

yudh + yak + te''' = yudhy´te "fighting is going on", with high pitched a

According to pANini, this applies to all Sanskrit.

Yet, at some point between the Punic wars and the Crusades, nobody knows when, Sanskrit teachers agreed to stop teaching the accent to their students. So, nowadays all Sanskrit speakers use high pitch in whatever vowel they want, or in none at all.

The only exception to that is vedic recitation, where accents are used the exact way pANini says they should be.

Therefore, in modern Sanskrit yudhyate is a word with two meanings, and you may accent it wherever you want, or not accent it at all, no matter what it means.

Many Sanskrit teachers will tell you that Sanskrit must be pronounced with accents when reciting the veda and without accent elsewhere. The word "must" there is a lie. According to pANini and all ancient grammarians, accents must be used always, even in the laukika. The fact that no one does that nowadays is in breach of the principle apANinIyanM na prayujyeta .

You should not try to use accent when speaking Sanskrit nowadays because no one else does, but you must know that doing so is not kosher.

1228 letters. -- 27400footnotes4.bse 900 -- popularity 13

(rulesthatdeleterootnas) (rulesthn)

rules that delete root nasalmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1384

Rule that erases the final nasal of a root --

anudAttopadeza (makes gam + kta into gata-)

Rules that erase the nexttolast nasal of a halanta root, and exceptions --

64023 znAnnalopaH after znam

64024 an-iditAM hala:: upadhAyAH kGiti before kGit

64025 daMza;saJja;svaJjAM zapi before zap

64026 raJjez ca before zap

64027 ghaJi ca bhAva-karaNayoH raJj to rAga

64030 n' .AJceH pUjAyAm

274 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 1 -- popularity 7

(theauxiliaryasisnotrep) (au)

the auxiliary as is not replaced with bhUmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1385

By asterbhUH, the root as turns into bhU before liT, so that as + liT jhi makes babhUvus, as in --

sarveSAM sukhamM babhUvuH "all had happiness"

Yet this only happens when as + liT is used as an ordinary verb. When it is an auxiliary, that is to say, when it is added after Am'', it stays as, and then we get --

as + Nal ata::upa As + Nal liTidhA A + As + a hrasvaH a + Asa ata::AdeH A + Asa akassa Asa

as + atus → .. → Asatus

as + us → .. → Asus

As in --

IkS + Am'' + as + NalIkSAmAsa "he saw"

IkSAmAsatus "both saw"

IkSAmAsus "they saw"

339 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 62 -- popularity 1

(prohibition) (proh)

prohibitionmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1386

The particle mAG is used to forbid or dissuade. It can be used with a loT, where na cannot be used --

mA kuru "don't do!"

yet instead of the loT, the luG can be used. This luG will not get aT AT, because of namAGyoge --

mA kArSIH "don't do!"

if there is both mAG and sma, the laG can be used, again with namAGyoge --

mA sma karoH "don't do!"

By alaGkhalvoH, when the sense is "stop doing", we can use alam or khalu with a ktvA --

alam kRtvA "enough with doing"

We can also use a tumun, or an action noun with TA --

alam kartum "enough with doing"

alam zokena "enough with grief"

424 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 84 -- popularity 1

(@metricausa) (@metri)

Metri causa means "to make the verse fit".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1387

"Metri causa" (say that as metrI kausA, or just mc to friends) is Latin for "to make the verse fit" or "to get a better rythm".

This expression is used when Latin and Ancient Greek poets break some grammar rules to make the verse fit.

Latinists take good note: in the Sanskrit tradition, good poets are supposed to never breach pANini rules. So when a really really good poet like kAlidAsa does that, commentators will sommersault to find a good excuse for them.

Yet, the epics appear to be older than pANini, or written by someone that didn't care about pANini. So, you'll find egregious grammar breaches from time to time --

dharmAd arthaH prabhavati dharmAt prabhavate sukham

"wealth comes from dharma, happiness comes from dharma"

gRhya saJMjJAnM tato bhImo gadayA vyacarad raNe

"bhIma understood the gesture and started moving around the battlefield with his mace"

According to good grammar, prabhavate is no good, it should be always prabhavati, and gRhya should be gRhItvA (see lyap). Yet, many poets are, like, -- to make things sound good, screw grammar when needed.

Scholiasts of the epics will excuse ungrammaticalities like prabhavate and gRhya saying that they are ArSam "from the old language of the seers".

coulson says that the makers of the epics composed Sanskrit "intuitively" with no knowledge of pANini rules. I tend to disagree with that opinion; in my view either the original authors had knowledge of pANini, or someone revised the original verses to make them agree better with pANini. But there's no way to prove either of us right, so forget I said anything.

1266 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 147 -- popularity 8

148 A @preverb (or /upasarga) is a /prAdi joined by sense to an action.

481 /matup means "this has it" or "there is in this".

580 Optionally, (@wordfinal) /ik stays and shortens before non-@similar.

940 (Optionally) replace /tvAm /mAm with /tvA'' /mA''.

1286 about the affix /kap

1341 The @soft /liG is used once in a blue moon.

1432 [/sa-]compound confusion.

1658 /saha and /sArdham "with"

(/ArSam) (/Ar)

epics have oddities.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1388

The word ArSam means "belonging to the old language of the RSis". Commentators of the epics sometimes use it to excuse any ungrammaticalities or mistakes.

Example. Suppose a zloka line has 17 vowels, such as janamejayasya rAjarSesH sarpa-satre mahAtmanaH. A commentator might, or might not, bother to comment --

akSarAdhikyam ArSam " the excess of syllables is a thing of the old language "

which boils down to saying "the extra syllable is not a typo".

Commentators do not always use that word. For instance, this line is a clear violation of rule samAse '-naJ-pUrve ktvo lyap --

sa gRhya ca kumAranM tamM prAvizat svagRhanM nRpaH "the king took the prince and went home"

But the commentary might just have gRhya gRhItvA "gRhya means gRhItvA".

586 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 229 -- popularity 1

1387 [@Metri causa] means "to make the verse fit".

(@hidden) (@hid)

about hidden wordsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1389

Suppose I ask "where did the squirrel go?" and I say "under the tree". If I say that, maybe my English grammar is not very good, but you will understand that I mean "the squirrel went under the tree", "the squirrel is under the tree", or "look under the tree".

If you are asked "did John catch the squirrel", you won't say "John caught the squirrel". The normal thing to do is skipping the words that will be easily understood even if missing. So, you might answer "he caught it", or "Paul caught it", or "he caught the moose", or just "yes".

English grammar is very picky about what happens when a word is hidden. I'm told that "under the tree" is bad grammar, and I must say "it's under the tree" -- replacing "squirrel" with "it". Sanskrit grammar, however, is not so picky. Same as in Japanese grammar, if a word is necessary you say it, and otherwise just don't say it. If you say this --

rakSe mayA zilA kSiptA lakSmaNena zarAs tadA "to the demon a stone was thrown by me, and by lakSmaNa arrows"

everybody will understand that you mean "by lakSmaNa arrows were throws at the demon", rakSe kSiptAH lakSmaNena zarAH . Here, kSiptAs and rakSe are hidden words.

The pANini grammar does not bother very much about teaching the right way to build sentences, or teaching when words can be hidden and when they cannot. The grammar is mainly concerned with the forms words take, and sentence construction is only mentioned when it affects the forms of the words, as in the rule object gets second . Yet, there are a handful of rules where hidden words are mentioned. Such as --



In those rules, the word sthAnin-, literally "what has been replaced (with nothing)", means "a hidden word".

1317 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 288 -- popularity 2

(accentrulesareonlyappl) (acce)

accent rules are only applied when reciting the veda.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1390 accent

It is abundantly clear that pANini thought that the accent rules must be applied when talking normally, in the laukika. And the ancient grammarians were of the same opinion. Yet, no one does that nowadays. The accent is heard ONLY in veda recitation. And that's in spite of the old proverb, apANinIyanM na prayujyeta .





273 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 300 -- popularity 1

595 In a @longhorn, the @former keeps its @accent.

(@extralong) (@extral)

extralong is a vowel longer than a long.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1391

The extralong vowels, also called pluta vowels, are vowel sounds that are longer than a long.

Ther come in two flavours.

First, the extralong vowels of the veda -- some vowels must be chanted with a duration of three mAtrA. You know which because they are written as a long vowel, but with a figure 3 after them.

And then, those mentioned by pANini, used when calling someone from afar, or when angry, and a few more situations. These you can make as long as you wish. The lengthening is always optional.

Some rules that mention the extralong --

When you call someone from far away, rule dUrAddhUte says, you may make the last vowel last more than a long.

Rule kSiyA says that you can use sometimes an extralong when you are angry at rudeness, blessing someone, or giving several commands.

622 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 332 -- popularity 8

80 What has the duration of !u !U !U3 is @short @long @extralong.

81 But only if it's a @vowel.

578 @Extralong and @nonjoiner vowels stay before vowel.

982 Make the last vowel of a sentence @extralong and @acute when...

1532 /ak are {a A i I u U R q L}.

(Natvamworksacrosssomew) (Na)

Natvam works across some word boundaries.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1392

The first half of a compound is always a word (by supodhA). Now, in some compounds, like grAma-NIH and zUrpa-NakhA and rAmAyaNam (rAma + ayanam), the r S R RR in the former changes makes raSA work on the latter, in spite of the same-word limitation.

There are dozens of rules allowing exceptions to the same-word like this one, but you don't need to worry about them much, because they usually happen in compounds, such as grAmaNI-, that you will find in the dictionary anyway.

These changes happen because fluent speakers will automatically apply raSA to whatever "feels" as if it were a single word. And expressions feel like a single word when they are used a often. So karma-yogena, a technical term not mush used appears intuitively to be a compound of karma "action" and yoga, because it is clearly a sort of yoga that has to do with work, while, on the other hand, grAmaNI- is a common word, and it just means "mayor"; if you use it every day you stop noticing that it is a compound of village-leader. Just like when we call someone Mr. Cartwright we are not aware that the word used to be a compound meaning cart-maker.

As words evolve from a compound to a commonly used word, there is no way to tell exactly when a compound will start to feel like a single word. The pAnini rules try to put some order in this, for instance, there is a rule that clarifies that we must say zUrpa-nakhA when we mean "that lady there with the nails like a basket", while when it is used as a proper name, Mrs. Basketnails, it is zUrpaNakhA.

1194 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 397 -- popularity 1

(noNatvambeforeserious) (noN)

No Natvam before serious.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1393

raSA will never change the n that is before a serious. So no N in these --

ramante "they have fun"

rundhate "they obstruct"

akSa + matup @n + zasakSavanti "that have eyes"

It will only work before vowel and funny. So it changes na into Na and nn into Nn, as in --

runaddhi Natvam ruNaddhi "obstructs"

ni + sad + kta AdezapratyayayoH ni + Sad + kta radAbhyAnni ni + San + (k)na Natvam niSaNna STunA niSaNNa- "seated; sunk down"





289 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 504 -- popularity 4

1001 Non-@wordfinal !m !n to /M before @serious.

1570 about /rundh and /runadh

(/kta) (/kta)

about ktammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1394

The affix (k)ta translates as "-ed" --

nI "lead" + kta "-ed" → nIta- "led, was led"

zru "hear" + kta "-ed" → zruta- "heard, was heard"

kSip "throw" + kta "-ed" → ksipta- "thrown, was thrown"

The kta nounbases can be used either as verblikes, meaning "was led, was heard, was thrown" --

vismRtA kathA "the story was forgotten"

or as adjectives, meaning "led, heard, thrown" --

tat sarvaM vismRtA kathA "all that is a forgotten story"

In the feminine, kta gets Ap, by ajAdyataSTAp --

hanUmatA zilA kSiptA "a stone was thrown by hanumAn"

See also niSThA and tayoreva.

399 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 657 -- popularity 98

(/ktavatu) (/ktav)

about ktavatummmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1395

The affix (k)tavat(u) translates as "did" --

kSip "throw" + ktavatukSiptavat- "did throw, threw"

nItavat- "led"

plutavat- "jumped"

(In these three examples, kGitica prevented puganta or hardsoft.)

The ktavatu nounbases are almost always used as verblikes --

zaraGM kSiptavAn aham "I shot an arrow"

zaraGM kSiptavAn tvam "you shot an arrow"

zaraGM kSiptavAn rAmaH "rAma shot an arrow"

plutavAn kapiH "the monkey jumped"

They can be used as adjetives too, but that's uncommon.

In the feminine, they get GI, by ugitazca --

zaraGM kSiptavatI durgA "durgA shot an arrow"

zaraGM kSiptavaty aham "I shot an arrow (woman speaking)"





492 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 680 -- popularity 24

(/jJApaka) (/jJAp)

About jJApakammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1396

Some rules have unexpected things, and it is suspected that pANini left them there on purpose, as a sort of hint that something weird is going on. This way of teaching is called jJApaka "hint".

Example. According to rule GamohrasvA, we have to double wordfinal G, N, n when they are between short and vowel.

Yet, in sutra iko yaN aci, we have a wordfinal N between short and vowel.

One way to explain that would be saying that pANini screwed up and forgot to apply GamohrasvA.

Yet pANini is considered holy, so if you ever say such a thing aloud in India, you lose your visa.

So if it is not a bug, it must be a feature. We must conclude that pANini deliberately failed to say ikoyaNNaci. Why? in order to hint something. In order to hint exactly what?

In this case, the best guess of the experts is that pANini, by not doubling this N, meant to teach "in the case of N, but not of n G, rule GamohrasvA is optional".

According to this teaching, you may, if you want, chant sUtra ikoyaNaci as ikoyaNNaci. Yet if you chant that way, you won't be teaching your students that the doubling of N is optional, so please don't do it.

874 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 713 -- popularity 1

280 (/kyap) after @nexttolast !R, except /kLp and !cRt

(formationoflRG) (fo)

formation of lRGmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1397

The lRG tense gets sya, as if it were lRT.

It also gets luGlaG itazca tasthas nityaGGitaH, as if it were laG.

Example --

pat + lRG tip syatAsI pat + sya + tipat + sya + t''' luGlaG apat + sya + t ArdhadhAtukasyeD apatisyat kric apatiSyat "it would have flown"

As in --

yadi zakunir azakSyat tad udapatiSyat "If the bird had been able to, he would have flown."

235 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 782 -- popularity 1

(spellingofobeforedelet) (spellinl)

Spelling of o before deleted a.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1398

0 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 921 -- popularity 1

575 After !a, /ru to !u (before !a).

(kaNDvAdilist) (kaN)

kaNDvAdi listmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1399





18 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 933 -- popularity 1

(/ku) (/ku)

vargammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1400

Rule aNuditsa teaches that the abbreviations ku, cu, Tu, tu, pu stand for these five groups of letters ---

ku = k kh g gh G

cu = c ch j jh J

Tu = T Th D Dh N

tu = t th d dh n

pu = p ph b bh m

All grammarians after pANini call these five groups --






respectively. So they say kavarga "k group" instead of saying " ku".

Example. The kAzikA commentary under rule coHkuH "replace cu with ku" explains --

cavargasya kavargAdezo bhavati "replace cavarga with kavarga"

instead of saying coH kvAdezo bhavati as one would expect.

421 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 947 -- popularity 40

(@hanger) (@han)

About hangers.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1401

Some short words, like ca vA eva iva, are called hangers, because they are always attached after another word. Therefore the expressions --

namaste "bowing to you"

siMhazca "and a lion"

athavA "or rather"

are always pronounced as if they were single words. Even though they are made of a normal word plus a hanger.

You may write a space before the hanger --

namas te "bowing to you"

siMhaz ca "and a lion"

atha vA "or rather"

In grammars, hangers are called "enclitics", which is Ancient Greek for "leaners".

Rule anudAttaM sarvam a-pAd'-Adau teaches that hangers cannot start a sentence, verse or half-verse -- they are always hanging after something else.

510 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 981 -- popularity 14

(/samAsAnta) (/samA)

types of affixesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1402

Some groups of afixes --

sup noun endings -- added after nounbases. They make nouns. Described under GyApprA.

azva- + suazvas "horse"

kRt affixes -- added after roots. They make nounbases. Described under kRdatiG

han + kta anudAtto hata- "(that) was killed"

tenses -- added after roots. They make verbs.

tiG verb endings -- these replace tenses.

car + laTcar + tip kartarizap carati "moves"

taddhita affixes -- added after nouns. They make nounbases. Described under taddhitAH.

gAvas + matup supodhA gomat- "(that) has cows"

samAsAnta affixes -- added after a compound.

mahat- + uras + kapmahoraska- "big-chested"

sanAdi affixes.

Some of these are added after a noun to make a root --

putram + kyacputrIya "want a son for oneself"

and the rest are added after a root to make another root --

vRt + causative NicvArti "make something happen"

610 letters. -- 27450footnotes5.bse 1004 -- popularity 4

(/iSTan) (/iST)

about iSThanmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1403

The affix iSTha(n) means the same thing as tarap, that is, "most, -est" or "very".

tarap is much more common that iSThan, but iSThan appears after some very common nounbases.

Example of iSThan --

zreyas "good" + iSThan → .. → zreSTha- "best, very good"

See also priya;sthira.

200 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 1 -- popularity none

(rulesthatdeletethecall) (rulesthl)

rules that delete the callingmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1404

The s of the calling su disappears almost always --

After consonants, Ap, GI by halGyA and eGhrasvAt

After eG and short by eGhrasvAt

After feminine U by ambArtha and eGhrasvAt

Therefore, the s only stays after ai, au, and after A I U that are not feminine Ap GI U.

Those nounbases are few and far between. They are the ones that end in diphthongs, and the ones that end in a rootnoun from a root that ends in A I U, and a handful more such as zrI- and dhI- (a.k.a. the iyaG uvaG) and lakSmI-.


he gauH "hey bull"

he zrIH "hey goddess of wealth"

he dhIH "hey goddess of smartness"

he grAmaNIH "hey mayor"

The nounbase lakSmI- is weird because some say that the I is the GI and others say it isn't, so she hears both of --

he lakSmIH "hey goddess of wealth"


he lakSmi "hey goddess of wealth"

609 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 11 -- popularity 1

(@mcm) (@mc)

mcm, sandhi of as As smmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1405

The words that end in as --

Turn as into o before haz letters. See hazica for examples.

Turn as into o before a, and that a disappears. See atoro.

Lose the s before other vowels. See bhobhago

The words that end in As --

Turn As into A before haz letters and all vowels. See bhobhago.

Other words that end in s --

Turn s into r before haz letters and all vowels. See sasaju.

All words that end in s --

Turn s into K or H before k kh but not kS. See kupvo.

Turn s into F or H before p ph. See kupvo.

Turn s into z S s before z S s. See vAzari, stozzcunA, STunA.

Turn s into z before c ch. See stozzcunA.

Turn s into S before T Th. See STunA.

470 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 83 -- popularity 1

1406 words that end in !r or !s

(wordsthatendinrors) (wordst)

words that end in r or smmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1406


... needs

reread and merging with the articles MCM, sandhi of as As s and sandhi of true r



When a word appears to end in r or s, and that r or s follows an ic, there is actually no way of telling if the final is an r or an s, because it works exactly the same way in EVERY situation. For instance the word pitur ends in r according to the grammar, and grammarians will say that these rules work --

pitur + sIdati kharava pituH + sIdati vAzari suhRt pitus sIdati "dad's friend sits"

pitur + vadatisuhRt pitur vadati "dad's friend says"

pitur + ramate rori pitu + ramate Dhralope suhRt pitU ramate "dad's friend has fun"

But if there were a word pitus, we'd get the same results anyway, because of sasaju --

pitus + sIdati sasaju pitur + sIdati → .. → pitus sIdati

pitus + vadati sasaju pitur vadati "dad's friend says"

pitus + ramate sasaju pitur + ramate → .. → pitU ramate

( The small exception to that are the few nounbases that end in ir ur is us. When those r s are wordfinal because they are before sup', the r and the s give different results, like dhUrSu and dhanuSSu )

Now, if a word ends in ar or as, and it is before khar or pause, it is again impossible to tell if it has r or s --

azvaS TIkate "horse jumps"

punaS TIkate ca "and jumps again"

But we know that azvas has s and punar has r because they behave differently before all haz letters --

azvo ramate "horse has fun" (see hazica)

azvo dravati "horse runs" (see hazica)

azvo 'dravat "horse ran" (see atoro)

punA ramate ca "and has fun again" (see rori and Dhralope)

punar dravati "and runs again"

punar adravat "and ran again"

In theory sort of the same thing happens with the words that end in Ar and As, but the Ar-enders are so uncommon that I won't bother to show any examples.

1284 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 103 -- popularity 1

(sandhioftruer) (sand)

sandhi of true rmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1407


... rewrite this, or delete

The words that end in true r are very few, and most of the time they look as if they ended in s.

The exceptions are --

before r, the ar turns into A (while as turns into o). See Dhralo.

before vowels or other haz, ar stays (while as turns into o by hazica).

See also words that end in r or s right above.

244 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 130 -- popularity 1

(aboutmeaningthedoerorn) (mea)

about meaning the doer or not meaning the doermmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1408

Some words built from roots can affect the words that mean the doer or the object of that root, or be affected by them. Those words fall in two groups --

(1) verbs. Those built by adding a tense after a root.

Examples: adRzyanta, apazyat, svapiti, Aste, Asyata.

(2) verblikes. Those build by adding certain affixes (such as kRtya, niSThA, sat...) after a root, getting a nounbase.

Examples: dRSTa-, dRzya-, dRSTavat-, pazyat-, dRzyamAna-, Asita-.

These can also be divided in two groups: those that mean the doer, called kartari, and those that don't. The ones that don't, in turn, can be divided in two groups: those that mean the object, called karmaNi, and those that mean nothing, called bhAve. Some examples --

(A) The following mean the doer -- apazyat, Aste, svapiti, dRSTavat-, pazyat-

(B) The following mean the object -- adRzyanta, dRSTa-, dRzyamAna-, dRzya-

(C) The following mean nothing -- Asyata, Asita-


The words in group (A) can come from any root. They take different endings depending on their doer. Their object takes second.

Examples with apazyat taking tip and jhi --

apazyad rAmasH siMhAn "rAma saw lions"

apazyan kapayasH siMhAn "monkeys saw lions"

Examples with dRSTavat- taking su and jas --

dRSTavAn rAmasH siMhAn "rAma saw lions"

dRSTavantaH kapayasH siMhAn "monkeys saw lions"

The words in group (B) come from objectful roots. They take different endings depending on their object. Their doer takes third.

Examples with apazyata taking ta and jha --

apazyata rAmeNa siMhaH "rAma saw lion"

apazyanta rAmeNa siMhAH "rAma saw lions"

Examples with dRSTa- taking su and jas --

rAmeNa dRSTasH siMhaH "rAma saw lion"

rAmeNa dRSTAsH siMhAH "rAma saw lions"

The words in group (C) come from objectless roots. They take always ta if they are verbs, or su if they are nouns. Their doer takes third.

Examples with Asyate --

Asyata rAmeNa "rAma sat"

Examples with Asita- taking su --

AsitaM rAmeNa "rAma sat"

1474 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 153 -- popularity none

(accuratetranslationofn) (accu)

Accurate translation of nazchavya.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1409

Rule nazchavya, most of the time, changes a wordfinal n into Ms before chav. However --

(1) The rule won't work on the n of prazAn --

prazAn tarati "he crosses calmly"

(2) Nor on the n that is before ts --

ghaNTAz ca vividhA rAjan hemagarbhAn tsarUn api "bells of all kinds and hilts decked with gold"

The indology file of the sixth parva of the mbh has hemagarbhAMs tsarUn api. That's a misprint.

aham IJIgo montoya yunaktu pitRhan tsarum "My name is Inigo Montoya. You killed my father. Prepare your sword."

(3) Whenever the rule works, we may, if we want, use the atrAnu option and replace with ~s instead of with Ms --

hanumAMs tiSThati

hanumA~s tiSThati

This hanumA~s tiSThati variant is sometimes heard in chanting but never seen in print.

Back to nazchavya.

589 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 238 -- popularity 2

986 But when not nasalizing the vowel, add /M after it.

(replacewithguNa) (wi)

replace with guNammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1410

When a rule says that something must be replaced with guNa, then --

i I turn into e

u U turn into o

R RR turn into ar

L turns into al.

As far as I know no rule ever replaces an a with guNa. If I am wrong and there is some such rule, it replaces a with a, because of most-alike.

205 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 543 -- popularity 1

886 (!R !q) -enders and !dRz to /guNa before /aG /aG'.

(/aJ) (/aJ)

about the aJ affixmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1411

The a(J) affix is a clone of aN, but it affects the accent differently. See JnityAdirnityam.

Some rules that mention aJ --

or aJ -- a(J) comes after u of an acute-starter to mean 'made of'.

or aJ x -- aJ comes after u-U-enders in several senses.

dvaipa-vaiyAghrAd aJ -- dvaipa- and vaiyAghra- have aJ.

prA NirajatA dibhyo 'J -- aJ after living beings and the rajata-class a(J) (can mean product or part).

300 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 559 -- popularity 7

426 (Use the affixes described after !!prAgdIvyatoN to mean) "his son".

590 /Jit is what has label !J

830 Same goes for the {dvAra}-class.

(vasuwithsup) (va)

vasu with sup.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1412

When the nounbases that end in vasu or kvasu are wimpy, the affix turns into -us- by vasossa --

vidvas- @mn + TA vasossa vidus + A kric viduSA

vidvas- @f + su ugitazca vidvas- + GI + s vasossa vidus + I + s halGyA vidusI kric viduSI

When they are before strong, vas gets num by ugidacA and lengthening by sAntama --

vidvas(u)- @m + su ugidacA vidvans sAntama vidvAns saMyogAnta vidvAn

vidvas(u)- + @calling su ugidacA vidvans saMyogAnta vidvan

Otherwise, the s of vas is wordfinal and turns into d by vasu;sraMsu --

vidvas- @n + su svamorna vidvas vasusra vidvad

vidvas- + bhis vasusra vidvad + bhisvidvadbhis

The kvasu affix is basically the same affix as this vasu, but it replaces the flat liT affixes. Therefore, it causes reduplication, by liTidhA --

zru + liTzru + tip kvasuzca zru + kvasu liTidhA zuzruvas(u)-

I have not explained how to form all kvasu, but that's okay because they are rare. They are easy to recognize because they have reduplication and vAn, vad, or US. If you ever catch one in the wild, or in the veda, see Kale for more info.

748 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 573 -- popularity 1

(/yuga) (/yug)

about the ages of the worldmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1413

The old Indian legends say that time is divided in kalpas, kalpas in caturyugas, and each caturyuga in four yugas.

The names of the yugas are --





These were named after the four sides of some Indian dice, which, from best to worse, have four dots, three, two and one. The story goes that in satyayuga everything is good, in tretayuga there are three parts good and one part evil, in dvAparayuga two good two evil, and in our age, the kaliyuga, there's is one part good and three parts evil.

Of course now we are in kaliyuga.

So things start very well at creation, and progressively get worse and worse, until they are so bad at the end of kaliyuga that God has to push the reboot button and start the satyayuga again.

If you see a picture of four cows, the first one standing on four feet, the next one in three, then on two and then on one, now you know what the picture means.

See Wikipedia on yuga for details.

726 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 595 -- popularity none

(/SaTkarmANi) (/SaT)

the six duties of a brahminmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1414

The word SaTkarmANi means "the six works" and may mean several list of six activities, like the six duties of a brahmin, the six ascetic practices of yoga, and so on.

The six duties of a brahmin are --

adhyayana reciting the veda

yajana sacrificing (for himself)

dAna giving alms

adhyApana teaching the veda

yAjana sacrificing (for others)

pratigraha accepting gifts

The trikarmin- is the low-rank brahmin that can only do the first three.

351 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 610 -- popularity none

(aboutthefinals) (fin)

about the final smmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1415

In this website, when I write an isolated Sanskrit word with an s or r at the end, as in --

"the word azvas means horse"

"Sanskrit for again is punar"

then you must pronounce the s r like aH or like ahA. And followed by a pause.

This sort of spelling will seem highly unnatural to anyone with the least knowledge of any Sanskrit grammar works, in which isolated words, since forever, are always spelt as azvaH or punaH.

Yet, I have decided to go against tradition, because among my students, the newbies are extremely confused by the H spelling and this way of spelling helps them.

The experienced students, however, already know that saying s or r just before a pause sucks, so my style of spelling is just a minor inconvenience for them, and can get used to it easily.

The above applies only to isolated words, embedded into talks about grammar. When I write full sentences, I use the traditional spelling, so just read everything as it is written --

santi vai puruSAzH zUrAsH santi kApuruSAs tathA "there are courageous men and there are cowards"

balAme 'bravId azvaH punaH "the horse spoke again to Balaam"

I must warn that sometimes I forget to write s r. So if I accidentally spelled ahaH or tryahaH, you must wonder if I meant an s turned into H, or an r turned into H. If you must guess, guess s, and you will be right 99.9 percent of the time (but see ahar and ahnaSTakhoreva).

1083 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 642 -- popularity none

(/analvidhau) (/anal)

Rule sthAnivad Adezo does not work for letter-rules.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1416

This exception can be reworded roughly as --

"When an affix is replaced with another affix, the replaced affix does not count as if it had the same first letter or last letter or number of letters as the original."

Example. When we add laG mip after dviS , we get --

dviS + mip luGlaG adviS + mip tasthastha adviS + am'''

Here am replaced mip, rule sthAnivad tells us that "am is like mip". Therefore, am''' has label p. This means that am''', like mip, is not Git. So, puganta must work --

dviS + mip luGlaG adviS + mip tasthastha adviS + am''' puganta adveSam

But when we add laG mip after pac , we get --

paca + mip luGlaG apaca + mipapaca + am'''

Here someone might say " mip starts with m, so if we replace mip with am, and am is like mip, then am starts with m too. Therefore, atodIr must work here and we must say apacAm".

If the sthAnivad rule just mean "replacement is like original", that reasoning would be correct. Yet, the rule has the word analvidhau at the end. That word means that sthAnivad does not work as far as rules such as atodIr are involved.

In simpler words, when we replace mip with am, that am starts with a and ends in m. Therefore, atodIr does not work in our example, and then atoguNe does --

paca + mip luGlaG apaca + mipapaca + am''' atoguNe apacam "i cooked"

922 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 664 -- popularity 2

2 next pages for chris

(clusterlengtheningafte) (clusters)

cluster lengthening after short.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1417

An old custom forces us to make certain clusters slightly longer when they follow a short. This happens both when chanting, and when talking.

For instance, the words that we write as





will be almost invariably pronounced





Even though, according to pANini, tatra and tattra are two different kosher pronunciations of the same word, in practice I don't remember having heard anyone ever say tatra.

Nowadays, it is better to think that the true pronunciation is tattra, and that tatra is a weird spelling of the sound tattra.

Judging from the manuscripts, this has been done for centuries. In the old manuscripts we find spellings such as tatra and tattra, chattram and chatram, used quite randomly. This suggests that everything written atra was always pronounced attra.

You might ask why, if we always pronounce tattra chattra with tt, in modern books we always find the word tatra spelled with one t, and chattra with two. The reason for that is that modern editors use the spelling that better conforms to pANini rules --

(A) According to pANini, tattra comes from tad- plus tral, and may be pronounced either tatra or tattra. So it must be spelled tatra.

(B) According to pANini, chattra comes from chad plus tral, therefore it may be pronounced chattra only, never chatra.

1076 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 729 -- popularity 1

124 Before @cluster is @heavy.

(usesofthesecondendings) (usess)

Uses of the second endings.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1418

A nounbase gets a second ending when --

(1) It is the object of a verb or verblike that means the doer. See karmaNidvi for examples.

(2) When the word is linked to abhitas, Rte, dhik, and some other words --

abhito grAmam "near the village"

grAmam Rte "except the village"

dhig grAmam "screw the village!"

(3) It is an adjective used as an adverb. In this case the neuter nounbase will be used --

zIghramM pataty ulkA "the meteor falls quickly"

The adverbial usage is seldom in the epics, as, in that sense, the adjective will more often than not agree with the fast thing, instead of becoming neuter and getting second --

zIghrA pataty ulkA "the meteor falls quickly"

509 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 751 -- popularity 1

(warningaboutflatbentru) (wa)

warning about flat bent rulesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1419

Even though pANini goes to great lengths to clarify which roots are flatty, which are bendy, and @which are flattybendy, the student must be warned that many authors in all centuries flout those rules quite unashamedly if they feel like it or if it helps to get a verse to sound right. So even though plavati (for plavate) or dRzyati (for dRzyate) or carate (for carati) totally suck, don't be surprised to find such forms in the epics or anywhere else.

The bright side of this is that you can be a little lazy here. If you accidentally say plavati when chatting Sanskrit, you won't impress anyone with your knowledge of grammar, but at least they will understand you.

533 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 770 -- popularity 1

(rootchangesbeforeyakan) (ro)

root changes before yak and soft liGmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1420


... needs more rewriting

The following changes happen before yak --

stretchable roots get stretched

vac + yak + te''' vacisvapi ucyate "it is said"

svap + bhAve loT ta vacisvapi sup + yak + tAm''''supyatAm "time to sleep!"

grah + yak + te''' grahijyA gRh + ya + tegRhyate "it is being taken"

i u lengthen, by a-kRt;sArva

zru + yakzrUya

ji + yakjIya

R to ri, by riGza

kR + yakkriya

mR + yakmriya

to ar after two consonants, by guNorti

smR + yaksmarya

RR to Ir by RRta_iddhAtoH etc

kRR + yakkIrya

but to Ur after v pu, by udoSThya

pRR + yakpUrya

pRR + yak + zAnacpUrya + AnapUryamANa- "that is being filled"

ai, o and some A turn into I, by ghu;mA --

dA + yakdIya

most roots with nextolast nasal lose it by aniditA (but nind does not, so nindyate "he's blamed, mocked")




... there is a list of such roots at




... but what rule drops them?

660 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 780 -- popularity 1

(optionalityofvAzari) (op)

Optionality of vAzari.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1421

Rule vAzari says that we may say either

kaH saH "who's he?"

with an H sound first (a visarga sound) and then an s, with no pause in between, OR or

kasH saH "who's he?"

with an ss sound (same as s, but @doubled).

Yet, in my classroom I tell my students that even though pANini says that the H + s sound is allowed, they will get an F in the oral test if they use it, and that I want to train themselves to apply the change Hs absolutely always. As if the rule were just zari, that is, as if the replacement were compulsory and not optional. I also tell them that

Why do I teach this way?

441 letters. -- 27460footnotes6.bse 872 -- popularity 1

footnotes 2 ←

chunk 71: footnotes 3

→ notes on the fish pages