32084 time and tenses, zatR zAnac, anaDuh ←

chunk 21: 32134 habitual doer affixes, future time

→ 33156 liG and loT

32134 Down to kvi, doers with habit, duty or skill. AkvestacchIlataddharmatatsAdhukAriSu
32135 tRn tRn
32136 iSNu after alamkR nirAkR prajan utpac utpat unmad ruc apatrap vRt vRdh sah car . alaGkRJnirAkRJprajanotpacotpatonmadarucyapatrapavRtuvRdhusahacara::iSNuc
32139 ksnu after glA ji sthA bhU glAjisthazcaksnuH
32161 bhaJj bhAs mid get ura. bhaJjabhAsamidoghurac
32168 Add u' after san AzaMs bhikS . sanAzaMsabhikSa::uH
32177 bhrAj-bhAs-dhur dyut-Urj-pRR ju-gravAstu get kvip compulsorily. bhrAjabhAsadhurvidyutorjipRRjugrAvastuvaHkvip
32182 dA-nI-zasa yu-yuja-stu tudasi-sic'{-miha pata-daza-naha} to mean tool. dAmnIzasayuyujastutudasisicamihapatadazanahaHkaraNe
32187 kta after JIt . JItaHktaH
33003 The gamin- class mean what will happen bhaviSyatigamyAdayaH
33010 Add tum or Nvul to an action that expresses the purpose of another action. tumunNvulaukriyAyAGkriyArthAyAm
33013 lRT . lRTzeSeca
33014 lRT to sat optionally. lRTassadvA
33015 luT . anadyataneluT
33018 to mean the action. bhAve
33056 ac'' after i I . erac
33088 Dvits get tri DvitaHktriH
33089 Tvits get athu. Tvitothuc
33090 naG after yaj yAc yat vicch pracch rakS . yajayAcayatavicchapraccharakSonaG
33094 ktin makes feminine action nouns. striyAGktin
33102 a'' after sanAdyanta. apratyayAt
33103 After heavy after consonant too. gurozcahalaH
33104 The Sit, roots, and bhid etc, get aG' . SidbhidAdibhyoG
33107 Ni-enders, As, zranth get yuc . NyAsazranthoyuc
33115 lyuT makes neuter action nouns. lyuTca
33126 Add khal to a root compounded after ISad dus su' when they mean hardly or easily. ISaddussuSukRcchrAkRcchrArtheSukhal
33128 yuc after A. Atoyuc
33131 What means near present, is optionally like present. vartamAnasAmIpyevartamAnavadvA
33139 Use lRG for future unfulfilled conditions and results. liGnimittelRGkriyAtipattau
33140 And for past ones too. bhUteca




(AkvestacchI) (@hab)

A kves tacchIla;taddharma;tatsAdhu-kAriSu ONPANINI 32134
Down to kvi, doers with habit, duty or skill.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 324

headline. The tacchIlAdi affixes (those explained in the next rules) make words that mean the habitual doer of the root.

Habitual doers are those that are used to, or have a duty to, or are good at, doing the action of the root.

So, if you killed a few dogs accidentally, nonprofessionally, and unskilfully, no one can grammatically call you a dogkiller by using han with the tacchIlAdi affix tRn. But they may still use tRc, which is not a tacchIlAdi.

Similarly, rule glA;ji " ksnu after ji", tells us that jiSNu- means an habitual victor. An accidental victor might be jetR-, with tRc.

The tacchIlAdi affixes are all those described between the word tacchIla of this rule, and the word kvip of rule bhrAja;bhAsa;dhurvi; dyut';..orji;pRR; ju;grAvastuvaH kvip way below. These are some of them --

tRn iSNuc ksnu knu ghinuN vuJ yuc ukaJ SAkan ini Aluc ru' kmarac ghurac kurac kvarap Uka ra u' najiG Aru kru klukan varac kvip

KAZIKA bhrAja;bhAsa;dhurvi; dyut';..orji;pRR; ju;grAvastuvaH kvib iti kvipaM vakSyati. A etasmAt kvip saMzabdAd yAnita UrdhvamanukramiSyAmas tacchIlAdiSu kartRSu te veditavyAH. abhividhau ca ayam AG. tena kvipo 'py ayam artha-nirdezaH. tad iti dhAtv-arthaH zIlAdi vizeSaNa-tvena nirdizyate. tacchIlo yaH svabhAvataH phalanirapekSas tatra pravartate. taddharmA tadAcAraH, yaH sva-dharme mamAyam iti pravartate vinApi zIlena. tatsAdhukarI yo dhAtv-arthaM sAdhu karoti. uttaratraiva udAhariSyAmaH.

725 letters. -- 32C.bse 364 -- popularity 5

326 {iSNu(c)} after {alamkR nirAkR prajan utpac utpat unmad ruc apatrap vRt vRdh sah car} (to mean [@habitual doer]).




(tRn) (/tR)

tRn ONPANINI 32135
tRn (means habitual doer.)mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 325 accent

Example. With root kR "make", any maker is kR + tRc, but only a habitual doer is kR + tRn.

These two differ only in the accent, which the former gets from citaH and the latter from JnityAdi. So someone that makes chairs professionally or as a hobby gets accent in the first vowel of kartA --

AsandAnAGM k(a)rtA saH he's a maker of chairs, he's a chairmaker

but if you jump to fame for having made just one chair, and not particularly skillfully, then the last vowel is accented --

Asandasya kart(A) saH he's the maker of the chair, he is the Chairmaker, he is Elethiomel

440 letters. -- 32C.bse 492 -- popularity 8

286 Add /lyu /Nini /ac'' after the !nandAdi !grahAdi !pacAdi.

591 /nit is what has label !n.

621 (Before @strong except @calling, lengthen @nexttolast) of /ap- /tRn /tRc, !svasR !naptR !neSTR, !tvaSTR !kSattR !hotR, !potR !prazastR.

691 !tR (to /lopa) before {iSTha(n)} {Iyas(un)}.

959 !ch !z !vrazc !bhrasj !sRj !mRj !yaj !rAj !bhrAj to !S (before @serious and when @wordfinal).

1350 [@Label]s and @accent.




(alaGkRJni) (/iSN)

alaMkRJ;nirAkRJ;prajan%otpac%otpat%onmada; rucy;apatrapa;vRtu; vRdhu;saha;cara iSNuc ONPANINI 32136
iSNu(c) after alamkR nirAkR prajan utpac utpat unmad ruc apatrap vRt vRdh sah car (to mean habitual doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 326

This uncommon affix makes roots into adjectives that mean habitual doer.

Examples --

car "move" + iSNuccariSNu- "moving, locomotive, unsteady, wandering about"

unmad "to be mad" + iSNucunmadiSNu- "mad as a bat"

sah "to be patient" + iSNucsahiSNu- "patient"

Because of kric, the affix ksnu below sometimes makes iSNu-enders too, like jiSNu-.

I suspect that these two have iSNuc, but I'm not sure, sorry --

pra + bhU "overpower" + iSNucprabho + iSNu ecoya prabhaviSNu- "powerful, great lord, great ruler"

gras "eat" + iSNucgrasiSNu "habitual devourer"

I mention these because they appear in bhg 13 16 --

bhUta-bhartR ca taj jJeyaGM grasiSNu prabhaviSNu ca "it is the supporter of beings, their devourer and overlord"

KAZIKA alaGkRJ-Adibhyo dhAtubhyaH tacchIlAdiSu kartRSu iSNuc pratyayo bhavati. alaGkariSNuH. nirAkariSNuH. prajaniSNuH. utpaciSNuH. utpatiSNuH. unmadiSNuH. rociSNuH. apatrapiSNuH. vartiSNuH. vardhiSNuH. sahiSNuH. cariSNuH. alaGakRJo maNDanArthAd yucaH pUrvavipratiSedheneSNuj vaktavyaH.

537 letters. -- 32C.bse 528 -- popularity none




(glAjisthazca) (/ksn)

glA;ji;sthaz ca ksnuH ONPANINI 32139
ksnu after glA ji sthA bhUmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 327

The affix (k)snu can be added to glA ji sthA bhU to mean habitual doer --

glA + ksnuglAsnu- "often weary"

ji + ksnujisnu kric jiSnu STunA jiSNu- "always victorious, conqueror"

sthA + ksnusthAsnu- "always firm"

bhU + ksnu kric bhUSNu- "that often becomes"

Notice that ksnu got no iT after bhU because bhU ends with U, an uk vowel (see zryukaHkiti).

KAZIKA chandasi iti nivRttam. glA ji sthA ityetebhyo dhAtubhyaH, cakArAt bhuvazca tacchIlAdiSu kSnuH pratyayo bhavati. glAsnuH. jiSNuH. sthAsnuH. bhUSNuH. giccAyaM pratyayo na kit. tena sthaH IkAro na bhavati. kGiti cety atra gakAro 'pi cartvabhUto nirdizyate, tena guNo na bhavati. zryukaH kiti ityatra api gakaro nirdizyate, tena bhuva iD na bhavati. kStorgittvAn na stha IkAraH kaGitorItvazAsanAt. guNAbhAvastriSu smAryaH zryuko 'niTtvaM gakoritoH. daMzezchandasyupasaGkhyAnam. daMkSNavaH pazavaH.

248 letters. -- 32C.bse 560 -- popularity 4

98 !l !z /ku (in affixes are [@label]s), but not in a /taddhita

326 {iSNu(c)} after {alamkR nirAkR prajan utpac utpat unmad ruc apatrap vRt vRdh sah car} (to mean [@habitual doer]).




(bhaJjabhAsa) (!bhaJ)

bhaJja;bhAsa;mido ghurac ONPANINI 32161
bhaJj bhAs mid get (gh)ura(c).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 328

This rule forms --

bhanj + ghurac cajoHku bhang + ura nazcA bhaMgura- anusvA bhaGgura- "brittle"

bhAs + urabhAsura- "splendorous, shining"

mid + ura puganta medura- "fat (cattle)"

( According to kartarikRt, bhaGgura- should mean "breaker", but in fact it means "likely to break by itself, fragile". )

KAZIKA bhaJja bhAsa mida ity etebhyo ghurac pratyayo bhavati tacchIlAdiSu kartRSu bhaGguraM kASTham. ghitvAta kutvam. bhAsuraM jyotiH. meduraH pazuH. bhaJjeH karmakartari pratyayaH svabhAvAt.

198 letters. -- 32C.bse 597 -- popularity 1

98 !l !z /ku (in affixes are [@label]s), but not in a /taddhita




(sanAzaMsa) (/u')

san;AzaMsa;bhikSa:: uH ONPANINI 32168
Add u' after san AzaMs bhikS (to mean the doer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 329

(This affix u' is not the same as the u added to uclass roots.)

After AzaMs "to desire", u' makes "desirous" --

AG + zaMs + u'AzaMsu- "desirous"

After bhikS "to beg", makes "habitual beggar" --

bhikS- + u'bhikSu- "(habitual) beggar"

After san, this u' makes adjectives that, by rule dhAtoHkarma, mean "that want to" or "that are going to" --

yudh + san + u'yuyutsa + u atolopaH yuyutsu- "(that) want(s) to fight"

han + san + u' + jasjighAMsa + u' + jas atolopaH jighAMsu + jas jasica jighAMso + jas ecoya jighAMsavas "(that) wanted to kill, that were about to kill"

KAZIKA saniti sanpratyayAnto gRhyate na sanirdhAtuH, anabhidhAnAt vyAptinyAyAd vA. sannantebhyo dhAtubhyaH AzaMser bhikSezca tacchIlAdiSu kartRSu uH pratyayo bhavati. cikIrSuH. jihIrSuH. AzaMsuH. bhikSuH. AGaH zasi icchAyAm ityasya grahaNaM, na zaMSeH stutyarthasya.

Note. Even though rule AkvestacchI say all these can be used only when the action of the root is a habit, in fact only bhikSu- has habitual meaning. For instance, yuyutsus means one that is now going to fight, or wanting to fight. Not necessarily someone that often wants to fight.

598 letters. -- 32C.bse 612 -- popularity 7

2 next pages for chris

54 /lopa means invisibility.

63 /aN'' and /udit include [@similar]s.

344 /a'' (forms @feminine action nounbase) after /sanAdyanta.




(bhrAjabhAsa) (/kvip)

bhrAja;bhAsa;dhurvi; dyut';..orji;pRR; ju;grAvastuvaH kvip ONPANINI 32177
bhrAj-bhAs-dhur dyut-Urj-pRR ju-gravAstu get kvip compulsorily.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 330

By rule kvipca, all roots may get kvip, not just these eight, and by vA 'sarUpo 'striyAm, most kvip are optional. This rule forbids any rootnounmaker other than kvip after these eight roots.

TURTLETURTLETURTLE

... looks likesome paragraphs can be removed from below ...

The (k)v(ip) affix is a rootnounmaker, and means the doer by kartarikRt. For instance, adding kvip after the root bhrAj "shine" we get the nounbase bhrAj- "shiner, someone or something that shines" --

vi + bhrAj + kvip + jas → .. → vibhrAjas "those that shine all round, shining ones, gods"

In (k)v(ip),

the i is padding,

the k label prevents puganta,

the p label triggers hrasvasyapitikRtituk,

and the v is real, but always disappears, by vera --

grAvNasH stutaH "both praise stones" → grAvNas + stu + kvip + au supodhA grAvan + stu + kvip + au nalopaHprA grAva + stu + kvip + au hrasvasyapiti grAva + stut + v + au verapRktasya grAvastutau "two stone-praisers"

This grAvNas word is of course grAvan- + zas --

grAvan- + zas alloponaH grAvnas Natvam grAvNas

The kAzikA lists examples of all eight rootnouns made by this rule, with su, au and jas added --

vibhrAT vibhrAjau vibhrAjaH " shining, splendid, luminous"

bhAH bhAsau bhAsaH "light or ray of light, lustre, brightness"

dhUH dhurau dhuraH @f "a yoke; (figuratively) burden, load"

vidyut vidyutau vidyutaH @f "lightning"

Urk Urjau UrjaH @f "strength, vigour"

pUH purau puraH @f "rampart, wall, stronghold, fortress, castle, city, town"

jUH juvau juvaH "quick"

grAvastut "stonepraiser"

Notice that ju plus kvip adds up to jU- (not ju- and not jut-).

KAZIKA bhrAjAdibhyaH dhAtubhyas tacchIlAdiSu kartRSu kvip pratyayo bhavati. vibhrAT, vibhrAjau, vibhrAjaH. bhAH, bhAsau, bhasaH. dhUH, dhurau, dhuraH. vidyut, vidyutau, vidyutaH. Urk, Urjau, UrjaH. pUH, purau, puraH. javater dIrghazca nipAtyate. jUH juvau, juvaH. grAvastut, grAvastutau, grAvastutaH. kim artham idam ucyate, yAvatA anyebhyo 'pi dRzyante 32075, kvip ceti kvip siddha eva tAcchIlikair bAdhyate. vA 'sarUpavidhir na asti ity uktam. atha tu prAyikam etat. tatas tasya eva ayaM prapJcaH.

Notice that grAva-stu is not a root. The rule says "grAva-stu" to mean that the root stu' "praise" gets compulsory kvip only after grAvan- "stone". In old India, praising stones was considered to be a serious occupation, and those that did that professionally were called grAva-stut-.

1335 letters. -- 32C.bse 634 -- popularity 17




(dAmnIzasa) (/tran)

dAm@;nI;zasa; yu;yuja;stu; tudasi;sica;miha; pata;daza;nahaH karaNe ONPANINI 32182
dA(p)-nI-zasa yu-yuja-stu tudasi- sic'-miha pata-daza-naha (get tran) to mean tool.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 331

TURTLETURTLETURTLE

...

This tra(n) affix is in fact properly called (S)Tra(n).

It is Sit (for SidgaurA).

By titutrata, it never gets iT.

tra(n)-enders are neuter.

Examples --

dA(p) "cut" + trandAtra- "cutting tool, cutter, knife"

nI "lead, guide" + trannetra- "leading tool, eye, GPS"

stu "praise" + transtotra- "flattering tool"

mih "pee" + tran hardsoft meh + tra hoDhaH meDhtra jhaSa meDhDhra DhoDhe meDhra- "whatever you pee with"

KAZIKA dAp lavane, NIJ prApaNe, zasu hiMsAyAm, yu mizraNe, yujir yoge, STuJ stutau, tuda vyathane, SiJ bandhane, Sicir kSaraNe, miha secane, patL gatau, daMza dazane, Naha bandhane, etebhyo dhAtubhyaH karaNe kArake STran pratyayo bhavati. dAti anena iti dAtram. netram. zastram. yotram. yoktram. stotram. tottram. setram. sektram. meDhram. patram. daMSTrA. ajAditvAt TAp, na DIp. daMzeranunAsikalopena nirdezo jJApanarthaH, kGito 'nyasminnapi pratyaye nalopaH kvacid bhavati iti. tena lyuTyapi bhavati. dazanam. nadghrI.

271 letters. -- 32C.bse 725 -- popularity 2

269 The affixes below are /kRt, except the /tiG.




(JItaHktaH) (/Ji)

JItaH ktaH ONPANINI 32187
kta after JIt (may mean what is happening).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 332

Here JIt (from Ji + it) means "a root that has label Ji". One such root is svap (listed as svap (Ji)svap(a) svapiti 02.0063).

Such roots, when kta is added, may mean either past time (by niSThA) --

suptasH siMhaH "the lion fell asleep"

or ongoing time (by this rule) --

suptasH siMhaH "the lion is asleep"

KAZIKA Ji id yasya, asau JIt. JIto dhAtoH vartamane 'rthe kta-pratyayo bhavati. bhUte niSThA vihitA, vartamane na prApnoti iti vidhIyate. JimidA snehane minnaH. JikSvidA kSviNNaH. JidhRSA dhRSTaH.

215 letters. -- 32C.bse 774 -- popularity 3

95 /Ji /Tu' !Du at the start (are [@label]s).

1172 /svap 'sleep'




(bhaviSyati) (!bhav)

bhaviSyati gamy;AdayaH ONPANINI 33003
The gamin- class mean what will happenmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 333

The gamin-class are group 41 in the ashtadhyayidotcom gaNapATha . They are made by adding some (N)in affix after a few roots. They are --

gamI . AgamI . bhAvI . prasthAyI . pratirodhI . pratiyodhI . pratibodhI . pratiyAyI . pratiyogI ..

Such affixes usually mean the doer of the root, by kartarikRt, and usually mean what is happening. For instance, an AnAyakas "bringer" (word made with Nvul affix) is someone that is now bringing, or that usually brings. However, because of this exception rule, these nine words mean what will happen after tomorrow. As in --

zvo gamI grAmam "he'll go to the village tomorrow, he plans to go to the village tomorrow"

The word bhaviSyati "to mean what will happen" of this rule trickles down to lRTassadvA.

KAZIKA bhaviSyati kAle gamyAdayaH zabdAH sAdhavo bhavanti. pratyayasya eva bhaviSyatkAlatA vidhIyate na prakRteH. gamI grAmam. AgAmI. prasthAyI. pratirodhI. pratibodhI. pratiyodhI. pratiyogI. pratiyAyI. AyAvI. bhAvI. anadyatana upasaGkhyAnam. zvo gamI grAmam.

572 letters. -- 33.bse 1 -- popularity 1

335 /lRT (means it will happen).




(tumunNvulau) (/tum)

tumun;Nvulau kriyAyAM kriyArthAyAm ONPANINI 33010
Add tum(un) or Nvul to an action that expresses the purpose of another action.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 334

This rule can be roughly reworded as --

" tum(un) and (N)vu(l) mean 'to' "

Example with tumun --

AneSyAmi "I will bring" → AG + nI + lRT → * A + nI + tumun hardsoft Anetum "to bring"

Example with Nvul --

AneSyAmi "I will bring" → AG + nI + lRT → * A + nI + Nvul yuvoranAkau A + nI + Nakal acoJNiti Anai + aka ecoya AnAyaka- "to bring"

These words can be used to mean that the action "I bring" is the purpose of another action, as in --

nirgacchAmy jalam Anetum "I'm going out to bring water"

nirgacchAmy jalam AnAyakaH "I'm going out to bring water"

In the last example, the nounbase AnAyaka- got su added because it has to agree with its doer (rule NvultRcau says so). The Anetum gets nothing because the tumun-enders are unchanging.

This rule can be used only when the purpose action and the other action have the same doer.

KAZIKA bhaviSyati ity eva. kriyArthAyAM kriyAyAm upapade dhAtor bhavisyati kale tumunNvulau pratyayau bhavataH. bhoktuM vrajati. bhojako vrajati. bhujikriyArthaH vrajiratropapadam. kriyAyAm iti kim? bhikSiSya ityasya jaTAH. kriyArthAyAm iti kim? dhAvataste patiSyati daNDaH. atha kimarthaM Nvul vidhIyate yAvatA NvultRcAv iti sAmAnyena vihita eva so 'sminnapi viSaye bhavisyati? lRTA kriyArthaupapadena bAdhyeta. vA 'sarUpavidhinA so 'pi bhavisyati? evaM tarhi etad jJApyate, kriyAyAm upapade kriyArthAyAM vA 'sarUpeNa tRjAdayo na bhavanti iti. tena kartA vrajati, vikSipo vrajati ityevam Adi nivartyate.

575 letters. -- 33.bse 54 -- popularity 29




(lRTzeSeca) (/lRT)

lRT zeSe ca ONPANINI 33013
lRT (means it will happen).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 335 tense

The trickle (means it will happen) comes from rule bhaviSyati.

Example --

kR + lRT mipkR + sya + mi Rd;dhanossye kariSyAmi "I will do"

The luT tense also means what will happen.

KAZIKA bhaviSyati ityeva. zeSaH kriyArthaupapadAdanyaH. zeSe zuddhe bhaviSyati kAle, cakArAt kriyAyAM ca upapade kriyArthAyAM dhAtoH lRT pratyayo bhavati. kariSyAmi iti vrajati. hariSyAmi iti vrajati. zeSe khalvapi kariSyati. hariSyati.

122 letters. -- 33.bse 244 -- popularity 24




(lRTassadvA) (@pfu)

lRTaH sad vA ONPANINI 33014
lRT to sat optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 336

Rule laTazza says that we can replace the laT of, say, karoti "is doing", with a sat affix, to make an adjective kurvat- that means "that is doing".

This rule says that we may also replace the lRT of kariSyati "will do", with sat, to make an adjective kariSyat- that means "that is about to do" or "that wants to do".

Example --

ghaTaGM kariSyati means "he will make" (a pot, for instance) and is made from kR + lRT = kR + tip

replacing the tip with zatR we get kR + zatR, and that adds up to kariSyat-, a nounbase.

This kariSyat- nounbase is an adjective that describes whoever is about to make anything. In these examples kariSyat- describes rAma- --

rAmo ghaTam kariSyan harSati "rAma, that is about to make a pot, is very happy"

rAmaGM ghaTam kariSyantamM pazyAmi "I see rAma, that is about to make a pot"

or "I see that rAma is about to make a pot"

Another example --

ploSyate means "he will jump", and is made from plu + lRT = plu + ta.

Replacing ta with sat we get plu + zAnac, which adds up to ploSyamANa-, a nounbase that means "that is about to jump".

In these examples ploSyamANa- describes a monkey --

kapiH ploSyamANo harSati "monkey that is about to jump is very happy"

kapimM ploSyamANamM pazyAmi "I see monkey that is about to jump"

or "I see that monkey is about to jump"

These forms where lRT became sat are found sometimes. inria labels them with pfu, "participe futur", meaning future participle.

The words kariSyan and kariSyantam above are made this way --

(1) In the verb kariSyati "he will make", that comes from kR + lRT, we replace lRT with zatR, getting kR + zatR.

(2) As this zatR replaced lRT, it makes sya appear, by syatAsI. This makes nounbase kariSyat(R)- that has label R --

kariSyatikR + lRT → * kR + zatR syatAsI kR + sya + zatR Rddhanossye karisyat- kric kariSyat- "that is about to make"

(3) When we add su and am to this nounbase, as these are strong, rule ugidacA kicks in --

kariSyat + su ugidacA kariSyants halGyA kariSyant saMyogAnta kariSyan "that is about to make"

kariSyat + am ugidacA kariSyantam "that is about to make"

When the sup is not strong, of course ugidacA won't work. Example with weak zas --

balAn ghaTAn kariSyataH pazyAmi "I see that the boys are about to make pots"

KAZIKA lRTaH sthAne satsaMjJau zatRzAnacau vA bhavataH. vyavasthitavibhASA iyam. tena yathA laTaH zatRzAnacau tathA asya api bhavataH. aprathamAsamAnAdhikaraNA'diSu nityam, anyatra vikalpaH. kariSyantaM devadattaM pazya. kariSyamANaM devadattaM pazya. he kariSyan. he karisyamANa. arjayiSyamaNo vasati. prathamAsamAnAdhikaraNe vikalpaH kariSyan devadattaH. karisyamaNo devadattaH. kariSyati. karisyate.

1622 letters. -- 33.bse 275 -- popularity 6

150 @Tense replacers are @flat.

333 The {gamin-} class mean what will happen

746 After "!A !a", (/zatR optionally) gets /num before /zI /GI.

795 ({a}-enders) get /muk before /zAnac /kAnac.




(/luT) (/luT)

anadyatane luT ONPANINI 33015
luT (means what will happen).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 337 tense

Example. The verb kartAsmi of this verse --

arakSasam imaM lokaGM kartAsmi nizitaiz zaraiH "I shall make this world rAkSasa-less with my arrows!"

is made from --

kR + luT mipkR + tAs + mi hardsoft kartAsmi "I'll make"

and has the same meaning as kariSyAmi "I'll make", which is built from kR + lRT mip.

The word anadyatane in the rule teaches that luT cannot be used to mean that something will happen today. This restriction is often ignored, so I didn't bother to translate it.

See also luT replacements .

See also splitting the luT .

KAZIKA bhaviSyati ityeva. bhaviSyadanadyatane 'rthe vartamAnAd dhatoH luT pratyayo bhavati. lRTo 'pavAdaH. zvaH kartA. zvo bhoktA. anadyatane iti bahuvrIhinirdezaH. tena vyAmizre na bhavati. adya zvo vA bhaviSyati. paridevane zvastanI bhaviSyad-arthe vaktavyA. iyaM nu kadA gantA, yA evaM pAdau nidadhAti. ayaM nu kadA 'dhyetA, ya evam anabhiyuktaH.

Nowadays, there is no difference in meaning between the lRT and the luT, as far as I know. In the epics, however, the luT is used far less often than the lRT, and it appears to be used in mostly in promises, oaths and threats, like the above example.

Saying asmi kartA to mean kartAsmi "I will make" definitely sux, but you'll hear it sometimes.

674 letters. -- 33.bse 380 -- popularity 24




(bhAve) (/ghaJ)

bhAve ONPANINI 33018
(Roots get ghaJ) to mean the action.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 338

In other words, ading (gh)a(J) after any root we get a masculine action noun. action nouns mean "an act of ...ing" or "the action of ...ing". So this affix turns to fly into a flight, to move into a movement, to sing into a song, to jump into a jump.

Being Jit, (gh)a(J) makes ata::upa, acoJNiti, JnityAdi work. Examples --

han + ghaJ + su hohante ghan + ghaJ hanasto ghat + ghaJ ata::upa ghAtaH "a killing, a strike, an attack"

nI "lead" + ghaJ + su acoJNiti nai + a + s ecoya nAy + a + snAyaH "leading, policy, strategy"

Being ghit makes cajoHku work --

pac + ghaJ + su cajoHku pak + aJ + s ata::upa pAk + a + spAkaH "a cooking"

Action nouns can be formed by many other affixes, such as lyuT, or naG, or the a'' in yuyutsA- "desire to fight" (added to yuyutsa and all sananta) or the ti in mati- "thought, opinion" (added to root man "think").

Notice that the action nouns are not the same thing as the abstract nouns mentioned at tasya bhAvas tva-talau. In that rule, bhAva means state or nature, here the same word means action.

698 letters. -- 33.bse 605 -- popularity 7

339 /ac'' after !i !I (means the action).

343 /ktin makes @feminine [@action noun]s.

632 (Delete the !J of !raJj) before /ghaJ when meaning state or instrument.




(erac) (!erac)

er ac ONPANINI 33056
ac'' after i I (means the action).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 339

This debars ghaJ.

ac'' ordinarily means the doer of the root by kartarikRt. But by this exception, after i I roots, it means the action --

ci + ac''caya- "a picking up"

iN' + ac''aya- "a going"

ji + ac''jaya- "a victory"

Those are m. But by a vArttika, bhI vRS and some other roots get ac'', forming a neuter name of action --

bhI + ac'' hardsoft bhaya- @n "fear"

vRS + ac'' puganta varSa- @n "rain"

KAZIKA bhAve, akartari ca kArake iti prakRtam anuvartate yAvat !!kRtyalyuTobahulam 33113 iti. i-varN%AntAd dhAtoH bhAve, akartari ca kArake saMjJAyAm ac pratyayo bhavati. ghaJo 'pavAdaH. cakAro vizeSaNArthaH, !!antaH 62143 !!thAthaghaJktAjabitrakANAm 62144 iti. cayaH. ayaH. jayaH. kSayaH. aj-vidhau bhayAdInAm upasaGkhyAnam. napuMsake ktAdini-vRtty-artham. bhayam. varSam. javasavau chandasi vaktavyau. Urvor astu me javaH. paJcaudanaH savaH.

274 letters. -- 33.bse 627 -- popularity 1

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(DvitaHktriH) (/Du)

DvitaH ktriH ONPANINI 33088
Dvits get (k)trimmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 340

The Dvit are the roots that have label Du, such as (Du)pac(aS) "cook" and (Du)kR(J) a.k.a. kR "make" . All initial Du are labels, by Adir Ji;Tu;DavaH.

These roots can get (k)tri to mean the object. Then they gat ma by (k)tri gets ma(p) .

Examples --

pac + (k)tri ktrerma pac + trima coHkuH paktrima- "that has been ripened or cooked"

kR + (k)tri ktrerma kRtrima- "artificial"

vap + ktri vacisvapi up + tri ktrerma uptrima- "sown, cultivated"

These examples imply deliberate action. So akRtrima- means natural, and anuptrima- means grown on its own, without sowing.

KAZIKA bhAve 'kartari ca kArake iti vartate. Du it yasya tasmAd Dvito dhAtoH ktriH pratyayo bhavati. ktrer mam nityam iti vacanAt kevalo na prayujyate. DupacaS pAke paktrimam. Duvap bIjasantAne uptrimam. DukRJ kRtrimam.

376 letters. -- 33.bse 640 -- popularity 4

1160 /labh "get"




(Tvitothuc) (/ath)

Tvito 'thuc ONPANINI 33089
Tvits get athu(c).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 341

The Tu' at the start of a root is a label, by AdirJiTuDavaH. One such root is (Tu)vep(R) "tremble, shiver". Such roots may get athu(c) to make an action noun --

vep + athucvepathu- @m " a trembling "

KAZIKA Tu it yasya, tasmAt Tvito dhAtoH athuc pratyayo bhavati bhAvAdau. TuvepR kampane vepathuH. Tuozvi gativRddhyoH zvayathuH. TukSu zabde kSavathuH.

142 letters. -- 33.bse 665 -- popularity 2

734 /idit roots get /num.




(yajayAca) (/naG)

yaja;yAca;yata; viccha;praccha;rakSo naG ONPANINI 33090
naG after yaj yAc yat vicch pracch rakS (makes action nouns etc).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 342

This rule explains these six words (that would otherwise have gotten ghaJ) --

yaj + naG stozz yajJaH "sacrifice"

yAcJA "solicitation, request"

yatnaH "effort"

viznaH "glowing"

praznaH "question"

rakSNaH "an act of protection"

Notes --

* naG is Git to prevent puganta in viznaH.

* A z replaced vicch and pracch by cchvozz.

* That z caused no stozz because of exception zAt.

* naG being Git, ordinarily grahijyA would have worked on praznaH. However, we know that grahijyA does not work there because pANini himself says prazna in rule praznecAsa.

KAZIKA bhAve akartari ca kArake iti vartate. yajA'dibhyo dhAtubhyo naG pratyayo bhavati. GakAro guNa-pratiSedh%ArthaH. yajJaH. yAcJA. yatnaH. viznaH. praznaH. rakSNaH. praccheH asamprasAraNaM jJApakAt prazne c' AsannakAla iti.

419 letters. -- 33.bse 671 -- popularity 3




(striyAGktin) (/ktin)

striyAM ktin ONPANINI 33094
ktin makes feminine action nouns.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 343

Some roots get ktin instead of ghaJ.

Examples --

man + ktin → * manti anudAttopa mati- @f "opinion"

stu + ktin → * stuti- @f "praise"

kR + ktin → * kRti- @f "action"

vac + ktin → * vacti coHkuH vakti vacisvapi ukti- "speech, statement"

zam + ktin → * zamti anunAsikasyakvi zAmti monodhAtoH zAnti- @f "mental peace"

KAZIKA bhAve akartari ca kArake ti vartate. strIliGge bhAvAdau dhAtoH ktin pratyayo bhavati. ghaJajapAmapavAdaH. kRtiH. citiH. matiH. ktinnAvAdibhyazca vaktavyaH. AbAdayaH prayogato 'nusartavyAH. AptiH. rAddhiH. dIptiH. srastiH. dhvastiH. labdhiH. zruyajistubhyaH karaNe. zrUyate anayA iti zrutiH. iSTiH. stutiH. glA;mlA;jyA;hAbhyo niH. glAniH. mlAniH. jyAniH. hAniH. RRkAralvAdibhyaH ktin niSThAvad bhavati iti vaktavyam. kIrNiH. gIrNiH. jIrNiH. zIrNiH. lUniH. yUniH. sampadAdibhyaH kvip. sampad. vipad. pratipad. ktinnapi iSyate. sampattiH. vipattiH.

167 letters. -- 33.bse 741 -- popularity 7

270 In the rules below, affix replacements are optional. Unless they look the same. Unless @feminine.

345 After @heavy after @consonant too.

591 /nit is what has label !n.

966 After @lUclass (!t of /niSThA and /ktin to !n).

1381 About the /uNAdi affixes.




(apratyayAt) (/a'')

a pratyayAt ONPANINI 33102
a'' (forms feminine action nounbase) after sanAdyanta.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 344

sanAdyanta roots may get a kRt affix a'' added to mean the action. As this action noun is a feminine, it always gets Ap, so it looks like A.

Example.

pA is a root and means "drink".

pipAsa is a root and means "want to drink".

pipAsanti (which is pipAsa + laT) means "they want to drink".

pipASA (which is pipAsa + a'') means "a wish to drink" or "thirst"

and nadIM yAnti pipASayA means "they go to the river with a wish to drink"

which is the same thing as saying "because of thirst"

Grammatical details.

pipAsa is a sanAdyanta root

Because of this rule, we may add a'' after pipAsa to get pipAsa-, that means "a wish to cook" and is feminine.

Being feminine, it always gets Ap added (see ajAdyata) Ap, making pipAsA- "thirst"

Examples with other sanAdyanta roots --

yuyutsa + a'' atolopa yuyutsa ajAdya yuyutsA- "a wish to fight"

putrAn + kyac + a''putrIya + a'' atolopa putriya ajAdya putriyA- "the wish for progeny"

putrAn + kAmyac + a''putrakAmya + a'' → .. → putrakAmyA- "the wish for progeny"

lU "reap" + yaG + a''lolUya + a'' → .. → lolUyA- "a repeated reaping, a hoarding"

kaNDUya "to itch, to scratch" + a'' → .. → kaNDUyA- "an itch, a scratch"

cint + Nic + a'' NeraniTi cinta- ajAdya cintA- "act of thinking, reflexion; worry"

Even though san verbs such as pipAsanti or yuyutsante are seldom used, the a'' derivatives such as yuyutsA- "a wish to fight" and the u' derivatives such as yuyutsu- "that wants to fight" are common.

KAZIKA pratyayAntebhyo dhAtubhyaH stiryAm akAraH pratyayo bhavati. ktino 'pavAdaH. cikIrSA. jihIrSA. putrIyA. putrakAmyA. lolUyA. kaNDUyA.

1027 letters. -- 33.bse 774 -- popularity 7

63 /aN'' and /udit include [@similar]s.

270 In the rules below, affix replacements are optional. Unless they look the same. Unless @feminine.

338 (Roots get /ghaJ) to mean the action.

345 After @heavy after @consonant too.

346 The /Sit, roots, and {bhid} etc, get /aG' (to form feminine action nouns).

347 [/Ni]-enders, /As, !zranth get /yuc (to form a feminine action noun).




(gurozcaha) (!gur)

guroz ca halaH ONPANINI 33103
After heavy after consonant too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 345

When a root has a heavy vowel and ends in a consonant, it gets a'' to form a feminine action nounbase. Instead of the default ktin.

The roots that have a heavy vowel are those that have a long vowel and those that have a short vowel followed by a cluster.

Examples of long before single consonant:

Ih "strive for" + a'' ajAdy;ataSTAp Iha + ApIhA- "effort"

Uh "infer" + a''UhA- "inference"

Example of short before cluster:

cint "to worry" + a'' @fcinta + ApcintA- "a worry"

This rule won't work when the root ends in a vowel --

nI + ktinnIti- @f

Or in a short plus one consonant --

bhaj + ktin coHkuH bhakti- @f

KAZIKA halanto yo dhAtuH gurumAn, tataH striyAm akAraH pratyayo bhavati. ktino 'pavAdaH. kuNDA. huNDA. IhA. UhA. guroH iti kim? bhaktiH. halaH iti kim? nItiH.

438 letters. -- 33.bse 966 -- popularity 3

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734 /idit roots get /num.




(SidbhidAdi) (/aG')

Sid;bhid-Adibhyo 'G ONPANINI 33104
The Sit, roots, and bhid etc, get aG' (to form feminine action nouns).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 346

This a(G), also known as aG', is a kRt affix. Not same as aG, a cli replacer, and not same as a''.

The aG'-enders always get Ap by ajAdy;ataSTAp.

Example with a Sit root, (jRR jgS 04.0025 "get old") --

jRR + aG' @f RdRzoGiguNaH jar + a ajAdy;ataSTAp jar + a + ApjarA- "old age, growing old"

Examples with bhid-class roots --

bhid "break" + aG' → .. → bhidA- "a breaking"

krap "feel empathy" + aG'kRpakRpA- "compassion"

The "bhid etc" roots are not listed anywhere official, but the kAzikA gives this list --

bhidA. chidA. vidA. kSipA. guhA giryoSadhyoH. zraddhA. medhA. godhA. ArA. hArA. kArA. kSiyA. tArA. dhArA. lekhA. rekhA. cUDA. pIDa. vapA. vasA. sRjA. krapesH samprasAraNaJM ca kRpA

KAZIKA SidbhyaH bhidAdibhyaz ca striyAm aG pratyayo bhavati. gaNapaThiteSu bhidAdiSu niSkRSya prakRtayo gRhyante. jRRS jarA. trapUS trapA. bhidAdibhyaH khalv api bhidA. chidA. vidA. kSipA. guhA giryoSadhyoH. zraddhA. medhA. godhA. ArA. hArA. kArA. kSiyA. tArA. dhArA. lekhA. rekhA. cUDA. pIDa. vapA. vasA. sRjA. krapeH samprasAraNaM ca kRpA. bhidA vidAraNe. bhittiH anyA. chidA dvaidhIkaraNe. chittir anyA. ArA zastryAm. ArtiH anyA. dhArA prapAte. dhRtiH anyA.

TURTLETURTLETURTLE

... erased questions

477 letters. -- 33.bse 980 -- popularity 4

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148 A @preverb (or /upasarga) is a /prAdi joined by sense to an action.

642 Erase !A (of a root) before /iT (and before vowel /kGit @soft).




(NyAsazrantho) (/yuc)

Ny;Asa;zrantho yuc ONPANINI 33107
Ni-enders, As, zranth get yuc (to form a feminine action noun).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 347

This debars a''.

yu(c) becomes ana(c) by yuvoranAkau.

As + yucAs + anaAs + ana + ApAsanA- "a sitting"

hAraNA- "a causing to take or seize"

dhAraNA- "an act of holding, supporting, mantaining"

KAZIKA Ny-antebhyo dhAtubhyaH, Asa zrantha ity etAbhyAm ca striyAm yuc pratyayo bhavati. akArasya apavAdaH. kAraNA. hAraNA. AsanA. zranthanA. katham AsyA? Rhalor Nyat bhaviSyati. vAsarUpapratiSedhazca strIprakaraNaviSayasya eva utsargApavAdasya. zranthiH kryAdirgRhyate zrantha vimocanapratiharSayoH iti , na curAdiH zrantha grantha sandarbhe iti. Nyantatvena eva siddhatvAt. ghaTTivandividhibhya upasaGkhyAnam. ghaTTanA. vandanA. vedanA. ghaTTeH bhauvAdikasya grahaNaM ghaTTa calane iti, na cuarAdikasya, tasya NeH ityeva siddhatvAt. iSer anicchArthasya yuj vaktavyaH. adhyeSaNA. anveSanA. parervA. paryeSanA, parISTiH.

138 letters. -- 33.bse 1114 -- popularity 2

324 Down to !kvi, doers with habit, duty or skill.

350 (Replace /khal with) /yuc after !A.




(lyuTca) (/lyuT)

lyuT ca ONPANINI 33115
lyuT makes neuter action nouns.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 348

This (l)yu(T) affix is (l)ana(T) by yuvoranAkau, and makes neuter action nouns.

has + lyuT + su yuvoranAkau has + ana + su atom hasanam "laughter"

gamL + lyuTgamana- "a going" @n

After some roots there is lyu instead of lyuT.

148 letters. -- 33.bse 1131 -- popularity 4

98 !l !z /ku (in affixes are [@label]s), but not in a /taddhita

338 (Roots get /ghaJ) to mean the action.

534 !sRj !dRz get {a(m)} before /akit @serious

654 /iN' to !y (before @vowel).




(ISaddussu) (/khal)

ISad;dus;suSu kRcchr%A-kRcchr%ArtheSu khal ONPANINI 33126
Add khal to a root compounded after ISad dus su' when they mean hardly or easily.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 349

su' ISad mean easily, dus means with difficulty. After these, the (kh)a(l) affix replaces the usual kRtya affixes. So, we get kara-, made from kR + khal, and labha-, from labh + khal, in these compounds --

sukara- "easy to do"

duSkara- "hard to do"

(the S comes from idudupa)

durlabha- "hard to get"

ISatkara- "easy to do"

as in ISatkaro tvayA kaTaH "You can make the mat easily"

Works before preverbed roots too --

durutsaha- "hard to endure"

This rule is compulsory, so we may not use the usual Nyat yat etc, that would have made sukArya-, durlabhya- and so on.

KAZIKA karaNAdhikaraNayoH iti nivRttam. ISat dus su ityeteSu upapadeSu kRcchrAkRcchrArtheSu dhatoH khal pratyayo bhavati. kRcchraM duHkham, tad duro vizeSaNam. akRcchraM sukham, taditarayoH vizeSanam, sambhavAt. ISatkaro bhavatA kaTaH. duSkaraH. sukaraH. ISadbhojaH. durbhojaH. subhojaH. ISadAdiSu iti kim? kRcchreNa kAryaH kaTaH. kRcchrAkRcchrArtheSu iti kim? ISatkAryaH. lakAraH svarArthaH. khitkaraNam uttarakra mumartham.

416 letters. -- 33.bse 1141 -- popularity 4

350 (Replace /khal with) /yuc after !A.

607 (/ku to !kA) optionally before !puruSa.

1132 /khit is what has @label !kh.




(Atoyuc) (!Atoy)

Ato yuc ONPANINI 33128
(Replace khal with) yuc after A.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 350

Addition to ISad;dus;suSu.

After su' dus ISad that mean hardly or easily, the A-ender roots get yuc, that is, ana(c) --

su' + pA + khal → * su + pA + yuc yuvoranA su + pA + ana akassa supAna- "easily drinkable"

duSpAna- "hard to drink"

ISatpAna- "to be drunk by small sips"

KAZIKA ISadAdayo 'nuvartante. kartRkarmaNoH iti na svaryate. kRcchrAkRcchrArtheSu ISadAdiSu upapadeSu AkArAntebhyo dhatubhyaH yuc pratyayo bhavati. khalo 'pavAdaH. ISatpAnaH somo bhavatA. duSpAnaH. supAnaH. ISaddAno gaurbhavatA. durdAnaH. sudAnaH.

178 letters. -- 33.bse 1184 -- popularity 1

533 /dhAtupATha /ec to !A unless before /zit.




(vartamAna) (!var)

vartamAna-sAmIpye vartamAnavad vA ONPANINI 33131
What means near present, is optionally like present.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 351

Example. When meaning "I just came" or "I'll leave straight away", you may use any present expression such as "I go" --

eSa AgacchAmi "look , I come" (meaning: I just came)

gacchAmi "I go" (meaning: I'm leaving)

KAZIKA samIpam eva sAmIpyam. SyaJaH svArthikatvaM jJApyate cAturvarNyAdi-siddhyartham. vartamAna-samIpe bhUte bhaviSyati ca vartamAnAd dhAtoH vartamAnavat pratyayA vA bhavanti. vartamAne laT 32123 ity Arabhya yAvad uN-Adayo bahulam 33001 iti vartAmAne pratyayA uktAH, te bhUta-bhaviSyator vidhIyante. kadA devadatta Agato 'si? ayam AgacchAmi. Agacchantam eva mAM viddhi. ayam Agamam. eSo 'smy AgataH. kadA devadatta gamiSyasi? eSa gacchAmi. gacchantam eva mAM viddhi. eSa gamiSyAmi. gantAsmi. vatkaraNaM sarvasAdRRzyArtham. yena vizeSaNena vartamAne pratyayAH vihitAH prakRtyopapadopAdhinA tathA eva atra bhavanti. pavamAnaH. yajamAnaH. alaGkariSNuH. sAmIpya-grahaNaM kim? viprakarSa-vivakSAyAM mA bhUt, parudagacchat pATaliputram. varSeNa gamiSyati. yo manyate gacchAmi iti padaM vartamAne kAle eva vartate, kAlAntaragatis tu vAkyAd bhavati, na ca vAkyagamyaH kAlaH padasaMskAravelAyAm upayujyate iti tAdRzaM vAkyArthapratipattAraM prati prakaraNam idaM nArabhyate. tathA ca zvaH kariSyati, varSeNa gamiSyati iti sarvam upapadyate.

153 letters. -- 33.bse 1201 -- popularity 2

317 In a question about recent time, (/liT and /laG can be used).

379 Replace /loT as if it were /laG.




(liGnimitte) (/lRG)

liG-nimitte lRG kriyA-'tipattau ONPANINI 33139
Use lRG for future unfulfilled conditions and results.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 352 tense

In other words, you may use the lRG for expressions like "if he knew he'd cry". Such a sentence may use lRG verbs both for "he knew" and for "he'd cry".

This rule is optional. And extremely so. In practice such hypotethical statements will almost always get liG, by hetuhetumator liG.

See formation of lRG for an example.

See also bhUteca below.

KAZIKA bhaviSyati ityanuvartate. hetuhetumator liG 33156 ityevam AdikaM liGo nimittam. tatra liGnimitte bhaviSyati kAle lRG pratyayo bhavati kriyAtipattau satyAm. kutazcid vaiguNyAdanabhinirvRttiH kriyAyAH kriyAtipattiH. dakSiNena cedAyAsyan na zakaTaM paryabhavisyat. yadi kamalakamAhvAsyan na zakaTaM paryAbhaviSyat. abhokSyata bhavAn ghRtena yadi matsamIpamAgamiSyat. bhaviSyat kAlaviSayam etad vacanam. bhavisyadaparyAbhavanaM ca hetumat, tatra hetubhUtaM ca kamalakAhvAnam. liGgiliGge buddhavA tadatipattiM ca pramANAntarAdavagamya vaktA vAkyaM prayuGkte, yadi kamalakamAhvAsyanna zakTaM paryAbhaviSyatiti. hetuhetumatorAhvAnAparyAbhavanayoH bhaviSyat kAlaviSayayoH atipattiH ito vAkyAdavagamyate.

269 letters. -- 33.bse 1227 -- popularity 18




(bhUteca) (!bhUtec)

bhUte ca ONPANINI 33140
And for past ones too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 353

We can also use lRG to talk about what could have happened in the past but did not happen.

Example. According to the previous rule, we may use lRG tenses of "know" and "cry" to mean "if he knew he'd cry". According to this rule, the same exact sentence might mean "if he had known he'd have cried".

Such statements, too, get liG way more often than lRG.

KAZIKA liG-nimitte lRG kriyA-'tipattau iti sarvam anuvartate. pUrvena bhaviSyati vihitaH samprati bhUte vidhIyate. bhUte ca kAle liGnimitte kriyAtipattau satyAM lRG pratyayo bhavati. utApyoH samarthayor liG 3-3-152 ityArabhya liGnimitteSu vidhAnam etat. prAk tato vikalpaM vakSyati. dRSTo mayA bhavatputro 'nnArthI caGkramyamANaH, aparaz ca dvijo brAhmaNArthI, yadi sa tena dRSTo 'bhaviSyat, tadA abhikSyata. na tu bhuktavAn, anyena pathA sa gataH.

269 letters. -- 33.bse 1241 -- popularity 1
















32084 time and tenses, zatR zAnac, anaDuh ←

chunk 21: 32134 habitual doer affixes, future time

→ 33156 liG and loT